Introduction to pharmacology

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INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY Ms. Aaishwarya B. Deshmukh, M.Pharm (Pharmacology), Ph.D (Pursuing) Assistant Professor, Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Pharmacy, Gandhinagar, India

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Pharmacology can be defined as the study of substances that interact with living systems through chemical processes, especially by binding to regulatory molecules and activating or inhibiting normal body processes. These substances may be chemicals administered to achieve a beneficial therapeutic effect on some process within the patient or for their toxic effects on regulatory processes in parasites infecting the patient.

History of Pharmacology :

History of Pharmacology Prehistoric people undoubtedly recognized the beneficial or toxic effects of many plant and animal materials. Around the end of the 17th century, reliance on observation and experimentation began to replace theorizing in medicine, following the example of the physical sciences. About 50 years ago, there also began a major expansion of research efforts in all areas of biology.


PHARMACOLOGY------ TODAY As with other biomedical disciplines, the boundaries of pharmacology are not sharply defined nor are they constant. The subject is defined by its purpose-to understand what drugs do to living organisms, and more particularly how their effects can be applied to therapeutics-rather than by its scientific coherence. Within the main subject fall a number of compartments (neuropharmacology,immunopharmacology, pharmacokinetics, etc.), which are convenient, if not watertight, subdivisions. Pharmacology tends to have more of these than other disciplines. Recent arrivals on the fringe are subjects such as pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomics.

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Clinical p’cology System p’ cology Molecular P’cology Pharmaco economics Biotechnology Pharmaco genetics Pharmaco genomics Pharmaco epidemiology PHARMACOLOGY

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1.Biotechnology: Originally, this was the production of drugs or other useful products by biological means (e.g. antibiotic production from microorganisms or production of monoclonal antibodies). Currently in the biomedical sphere, biotechnology refers mainly to the use of recombinant DNA technology for a wide variety of purposes, including the manufacture of therapeutic proteins, diagnostics, genotyping, production of transgenic animals , etc. The many non-medical applications include agriculture, forensics, environmental sciences, etc. 2. Pharmacogenetics This is the study of genetic influences on responses to drugs. Originally, pharmacogenetics focussed on familial idiosyncratic drug reactions, where affected individuals show an abnormal-usually adverse-response to a class of drug. It now covers broader variations in drug response , where the genetic basis is more complex.

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3. Pharmacogenomics This recent term overlaps with pharmacogenetics, describing the use of genetic information to guide the choice of drug therapy on an individual basis. The underlying assumption is that differences between individuals in their response to therapeutic drugs can be predicted from their genetic make-up . On this principle, discovering which specific gene variations are associated with a good or poor therapeutic response to a particular drug should enable individual tailoring of therapeutic choices on the basis of an individual's genotype. 4. Pharmacoepidemiology This is the study of drug effects at the population level. It is concerned with the variability of drug effects between individuals in a population, and between populations . Variability between individuals or populations has an adverse effect on the utility of a drug, even though its mean effect level may be satisfactory. Pharmacoepidemiological studies also take into account patient compliance and other factors that apply when the drug is used under real-life conditions.

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5. Pharmacoeconomics This branch of health economics aims to quantify in economic terms the cost and benefit of drugs used therapeutically. It arose from the concern of many governments to provide for healthcare from tax revenues, raising questions of what therapeutic procedures represent the best value for money. This, of course, raises fierce controversy, since it ultimately comes down to putting monetary value on health and longevity. As with pharmacoepidemiology, regulatory authorities are increasingly requiring economic analysis, as well as evidence of individual benefit, when making decisions on licensing.

nomenclature of drugs:

nomenclature of drugs

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Drug: A drug is defined as any substance used in the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of a disease or condition Drug Names: Chemical Name Generic Name Trade Name

Chemical Name:

Chemical Name Describes its molecular structure and distinguishes it from other drugs Gives exact chemical composition of the drug Places atoms or molecular structure

Generic name:

Generic name Determined by the pharmaceutical company along with a special organization known as the U.S. Adopted Names Council (USAN) Name given to drug before it becomes official Given by the United States Adopted Names Council Typically derived from chemical name Usually shorter

Trade Name Or brand name- :

Trade Name Or brand name- The manufacturer selects alone…can become a registered trademark. They are the only one who can advertise and market the drug under that name Name that is registered by the manufacturer Followed by the trademark symbol ® Can only be used by the manufacturer May have several trade names (depending on number of manufacturers) The first letter of the name is capitalized

1. To indicate the disease process being treated:

1. To indicate the disease process being treated Azmacort- treats asthma Rythmol- treats cardiac arrhythmias

2. To simplify the generic name :

2. To simplify the generic name Pseudoephedrine to Sudefed Haloperidol to Haldol Ciprofloxacin to Cipro

3. To indicate the duration :

3. To indicate the duration Slow-K slow release potassium supplement

Essential medicines:

Essential medicines Those drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population; they should therefore be available at all times in adequate amounts and in appropriate dosage forms, at a price the community can afford. ( World health organization (WHO) ) The WHO has published a model list of essential medicines. Each country is encouraged to prepare their own lists taking into consideration local priorities. At present over 150 countries have published an official essential medicines list . The WHO List contains a core list and a complementary list. The core list presents a list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions. The complementary list presents essential medicines for priority diseases, for which specialized diagnostic or monitoring facilities are needed.

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CURRENT LIST The 16th is the current Model List of Essential Medicines, prepared by the WHO Expert Committee in March 2009 and revised in January 2010. Library: The essential Medicines Library (EMLib) Web-based searchable database for Essential Medicines and the WHO Model Formulary. Search for medicine details, disease and treatment references, and various resources, WHO Essential Medicines. Lists: WHO Model List of Essential Medicines Selection of essential medicines This year alone, there will be over 40 million deaths in developing countries, one-third among children under age five. Ten million will be due to acute respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, tuberculosis, and malaria -- all conditions for which safe, inexpensive, essential drugs can be life-saving.

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS Or legend drugs Means in order to obtain drug, you must have a legal prescription Non-Prescription Drugs Or Over-the-Counter (OTC) drugs Drug that may be purchased without a prescription

Drug Classification:

Drug Classification Can be approached from two perspectives Clinical Indication Example – Bronchodilator Drugs Body System Example – Drugs Affecting the Nervous System

Controlled Substances:

Controlled Substances Drugs which are classified according to their use and abuse potential Term originated in 1970 as a result of the Controlled Substances Act which was developed to provide increased research into, and prevention of, drug abuse and drug dependence; to provide treatment rehabilitation of drug abusers and drug dependent persons; to improve the administration regulation of the manufacturing, distributing, and dispensing of controlled substances

Drug Actions:

Drug actions How drugs produce changes within the body Drug effect Changes that take place in the body as a result of drug action Slowing down or speeding up processes Destroying certain cells or parts of cells Replacing substances that the body lacks or fails to produce Drug Actions

Drug Actions:

Desired effect Effect of drug in the body that was intended Side effect Additional effect on the body by the drug that was not part of the goal for that medication Not usually severe enough to warrant discontinuing the medication Adverse reaction One in which the body reacts to a drug in an unexpected way that may endanger a patient’s health and safety Contraindication Any special symptom or circumstance that indicates that the use of a particular drug or procedure is dangerous, not advised, or has not been proven safe for administration Local effect Response to a medication that is confined to a specific part of the body Systemic effect Generalized or widespread response to a drug by the body because it is absorbed into the bloodstream Drug Actions

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Cumulation Occurs when a drug is not completely excreted from the body before another dose is given Drug starts to accumulate in the body tissues when repeated doses are given Toxic effects may occur Idiosyncracy An unusual, inappropriate response to a drug or to the usual effective dose of a drug Anaphylactic Shock = severe idiosyncratic reaction Acute respiratory distress, hypotension, edema, tachycardia, cool pale skin, cyanosis, and possible convulsions shortly after administration of the medication Potentiation Occurs when two drugs administered together produce a more powerful response than the sum of their individual effects Tolerance Resistance to effect of a drug A characteristic of drug addiction



Sources of Drugs (cont.):

Sources of Drugs (cont.) Plants = primary source of substances used in human body Berries, bark, leaves, resin from trees, roots Minerals = from the earth & soil Iron, sulfur, potassium, silver & even gold Animals = substances from the glands, organs & tissues of animals Pork insulin Synthetic = man made (test tube drugs)

Sources of Drugs:

Sources of Drugs Plants Example Trade Name Classification Chinchona Bark Quinidine Antiarrhythmic Purple Foxglove Digitalis Cardiotonic Poppy Plant Paregoric, Antidiarrheal, (Opium) Morphine, Analgesic, Codeine Analgesic, Antitussive

Active Constituents of Plant Drugs:

Active Constituents of Plant Drugs The leaves, roots, seeds, and other parts of plants may be dried or otherwise processed for use as a medicine and , as such, are known as Crude drugs. Their therapeutic effect is produced by the chemical substances they contain Some of the types of pharmacologically active compounds found in plants, grouped according to their physical and chemical properties, are alkaloids, glycosides, gums and oils


Alkaloids Organic compounds that are alkaline in nature and are chemically combined with acids in the laboratory to form water – soluble salts Example – Morphine Sulfate


Glycosides Active plant substances that, on hydrolysis, yield sugar plus one or more additional active substances The sugar is believed to increase the solubility, absorption, permeability, and cellular distribution of the glycoside Example - Digoxin


Gums Plant exudates When water is added, some of them will swell and form gelatinous masses Others remain unchanged in the GI tract, where they act as hydrophilic colloids They absorb water, form watery bulk, and exert a laxative effect Are also used to soothe irritated skin and mucous membranes Example – Psyllium seeds are a natural laxative gum Example – Carboxymethylcellulose are synthetic colloids


Oils Highly viscous liquids and are generally of two kinds Volatile Fixed

Volatile Oil:

Volatile Oil Imparts an aroma to a plant Because of their pleasant odor and taste, these oils are frequently used as flavoring agents Evaporate easily Typically non-greasy Example – Peppermint

Fixed Oil:

Fixed Oil Generally greasy and do not evaporate easily Example – Castor Oil

Sources of Drugs:

Sources of Drugs Minerals Example Trade Name Classification Magnesium Milk of Magnesia Antacid, Laxative Zinc Zinc Oxide Oint. Sunscreen, Skin Protectant Gold Solganal, Auranofin Anti-inflammatory; Used in tx of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Sources of Drugs:

Sources of Drugs Animals Example Trade Name Classification Pancreas of Cow, Insulin; regular, Antidiabetic Hog NPH, PZI Hormone Stomach of Cow, Pepsin Digestive Hog Hormone Thyroid Gland Thyroid, USP Hormone Of Animals

Sources of Drugs:

Sources of Drugs Synthetic Example Trade Name Classification Meperidine Demerol Analgesic Diphenoxylate Lomotil Antidiarrheal Co-Trimoxazole Bactrim, Septra Anti-Infective Sulfonamide; Used in the treatment of UTI’s

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