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Evaluation Methods for Human-System Performance of Intelligent Systems : 

Evaluation Methods for Human-System Performance of Intelligent Systems Jean Scholtz Information Access Division National Institute of Standards and Technology jean.scholtz@nist.gov

“The System”: 

“The System” User Interface Human performance Robot performance Usability and utility of interaction devices

HCI compared to HRI: 

HCI compared to HRI Autonomy of systems Operate in changing Real-world environment Users have other demanding tasks Interaction with >1 system >1 users interacting with a given system Systems are command driven Deterministic Operates in virtual world In many cases, the computer IS the task One user/one system

User Interfaces: 

User Interfaces It’s not just the GUI - It’s the information And the interaction….. The “interface” can’t be done “at the end” It has to be designed along with the architecture of the system And to do that, we need to determine what information and what interactions are needed

Usability versus Utility: 

Usability versus Utility Usability - whether the user can figure out how to do a task with a given user interface Utility- whether the tasks supported in the software and accessed via the user interface provide the user with the functionality appropriate for her task User Interfaces that provide utility MAY be used even if they lack a certain level of usability Usability user interfaces that have little utility will NOT be used

Interaction Roles: 

Interaction Roles Why distinguish? different interactions needs different information needs Proposed roles supervisor oversees a number of heterogeneous robots mixed-initiative: either human or robots can see a problem and request or give help operator “inside” robot, takes over and moves robot mechanic “outside” robot, actually performs physical adjustments team mate human and robot are jointly performing a mission; need to be aware of each other’s actions bystander occasional user; needs to understand robot’s actions well enough to co-exist in same environment

Interaction Centric Design/ Evaluation: 

Interaction Centric Design/ Evaluation Is necessary information present for human/ robot to intervene? Is information presented appropriately? Is interaction language efficient for human/robot? Are interactions efficient and effective? Do interactions scale to multiple robots? Do interactions support robot evolution?

Framework for Research: 

Framework for Research Then user interfaces are constructed by -deciding which roles are going to be supported -incorporating that information and interactions into the interface

Information Presence and Presentation Evaluation: 

Information Presence and Presentation Evaluation Situational awareness assessment Level one: perception of cues Level two: comprehension of cues Level three: ability to predict what will happen next Direct experimentation using queries freeze task SAGAT methodology

Interaction Performance: 

Interaction Performance Measure the ability of the user to formulate the correct interaction and the robot to understand and carry out Typical HCI evaluation construct a set of tasks give representative users the tasks compute measures of effectiveness, efficiency, user satisfaction, accuracy PLUS robot performance time and accuracy of robot performance

Scalability and Evolution Evaluation: 

Scalability and Evolution Evaluation Support for 1:n and n:1 evaluations use the information presence and presentation with tasks which include 1:n and n:1 interactions Support for evolution evaluate the appropriateness of the interaction language, including the level of abstractions evaluate the information needs

Case Study: Situational Awareness Assessment Tool: 

Case Study: Situational Awareness Assessment Tool Supervisory role, driving domain, urban terrain Steps: construct various scenarios and informational needs in the domain construct user interface develop assessment queries for these scenarios collect data from representative set of users validate by having users also use driving simulator and note scores Deliverables: baseline UI with situational awareness metrics for a set of scenarios assessment tool Status Currently under development

Case Study: ByStander Role: 

Case Study: ByStander Role Exploratory study on the effects of consistency and expectness of behaviors on ability to construct mental models Used Sony Aibo, programmed with 4 sets of behaviors consistent, expected consistent, unexpected inconsistent, expected inconsistent, unexpected Experiment asked subjects how they thought they could interact explained interactions modalities and asked subjects to interact for 10 minutes asked subjects what the various interaction modalities did


Results: Interaction Expectations


Results: Mental Model Accuracies


Results Consistent, expected behaviors resulted in higher recall Unexpected but consistent and expected but inconsistent were lower but were about the same Unexpected, inconsistent behaviors has lots of variance Subjects expressed frustration with unexpected behaviors, tried to rationalize inconsistent behaviors Subjects found it difficult to tell when behaviors ended and tried to interrupt with new command playing with ball long action (dancing) Voice recognition errors tolerated like real dog


Conclusions Performance of the “system” is more than hardware/software performance human-robot team performance needs to be measured HRI interaction roles and issues constitute a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies that address the information centric aspects of the human-robot system

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