NS2 2 Feb 06

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Slide1: 

The Age of the Great Explorers LTCOL S.F. Mitchell

Roman Galley: 

Roman Galley Corvus: Boarding device. - Allowed Roman soldiers to board Carthaginian ships. Corvus

Roman Navy: 

Roman Navy Remained second to Roman Army, but… Enabled Roman empire to expand east to the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf. Cleared the Mediterranean Sea of pirates. Adapted Roman Army’s missile tactics: use of catapults to hurl stones, javelins, and combustible projectiles.

Slide6: 

Mediterranean Sea Power After Pax Romana A millennium (400 – c. 1500) in which Medieval Europe and Asia were fragmented by migrating tribal peoples, feudal kingdoms, and sprawling kingdoms that did much of their fighting on land.   b. In the Mediterranean, the galley continued to dominate as a naval vessel Roman Empire divided between East and West. Germanic barbarian invasions of the West. Byzantine Empire continues in the East. Crusades (1095) Last 2 centuries Crusaders are transported by merchant ships from Italian city-states, few naval battles.

Age of Sail: 

Age of Sail The 16th through 19th Century.

Sailing Ships: 

Sailing Ships Galleys useless on Atlantic Ocean due to high sea states and poor weather. Merchant ships developed into caravels and then galleons. Forecastles and aftercastles developed. Initially grappling hooks are used for boarding enemy ships, then cannon are used to attack at longer range. Long distance journeys drove improvements in navigation.

Navigation Improvements: 

Navigation Improvements Accurate longitude measurements become possible in 18th century. Accurate chronometer. Sextant - improves ability to measure angle of celestial bodies. Now accurate latitude and longitude available.

Dividing up the World: 

Dividing up the World 1493 Pope Alexander VI divided the world giving Spain the New World Portugal protested to King and Queen of Spain and moved the line 100 leagues west Portuguese get Brazil and Indian Ocean

Age of Exploration: 

Age of Exploration Spain - Large empire established in the Americas. Columbus - Americas - 1492 Magellan - Circumnavigation of the Globe - 1519-1522 “The Conquistadors” of America Balboa - Panama - 1513 Ponce de Leon - Florida - 1513 Cortez - Mexico (Aztec Empire) - 1520 Pizarro - Peru (Inca Empire) - 1532 Portugal: Prince Henry the Navigator Bartholomew Diaz - Cape of Good Hope - 1486 Vasco da Gama - India - 1497 -- Conflict with Arabs. Cabral - Brazil - 1500

Slide12: 

July, 1497 May, 1498

Early European Colonization: 

Early European Colonization England, Holland, and France ignore Treaty of Tordesillas begin exploration - 1500’s. European competition for overseas colonies begins. Colonies established in areas in Caribbean and Latin America not already claimed by Portugal and Spain. England: Eastern coast of present-day US. France: Canada and Louisiana Holland: New York, South Africa and challenged Portugal in Indian Ocean and East Indies.

Rise of English Sea Power: 

Rise of English Sea Power Mid-1500’s - England begins to develop a standing fighting fleet under Henry VIII. Sea power vital to English (British) victory in a series of conflicts with other European powers: Spain (1567-1604) Holland (1652-1674) France (1689-1815) English Navy is of primary importance to the defense of England and its growing overseas empire. Designated Royal Navy in 1660 by King Charles II. England (including Wales) and Scotland form United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and add Ireland in 1801. Naval tactics developed and formalized.

Men of War: 

Forecastles and Aftercastles eliminated. Increased speed and stability. Multiple decks with gunports. More guns added. Full-rigging. Faster speeds. Many sailors. Needed to man sails and guns. Men of War

Men of War: 

Men of War Propulsion: Sail Weapons: Guns (Broadside) Formation: Line-Ahead Rate Guns Decks Notes 1 > 100 3 Ships of the Line (Flag) 2 80-100 3 Ships of the Line (Flag) 3 60-80 2 Ships of the Line (Private) 4 50-60 1-2 Cruisers (Flag) 5 30-44 1 Cruisers (Frigates) 6 20-28 1 Cruisers (Sloops, Brigs & Schooners)

Ships and Cannon: 

Ships and Cannon

Man of War- Ship of the Line: 

Man of War- Ship of the Line

Ships of the Line: 

Ships of the Line Only heavily gunned ships able to remain in line ahead formation during battle. Greater than 80 guns required. Smaller ships (cruisers) detached for patrol, reconnaissance, blockade, and attacks on enemy merchant ships (commerce raiding). Fleet with better gunnery skills can gain the advantage. Importance of training sailors to fire guns rapidly and accurately.

Fleet Advantages: 

Fleet Advantages Weather Gage Held by the upwind fleet. Ability to determine the time and range of engagement of the enemy fleet. Lee Gage Held by the downwind fleet. Ability to determine the time of disengagement from the enemy fleet.

Line Ahead Formations: 

Line Ahead Formations Wind Weather Gage Lee Gage

Formal Battle Tactics: 

Formal Battle Tactics Wind

Formal Tactics: 

Formal Tactics Wind

Formal Tactics: 

Formal Tactics Wind

Melee Tactics: 

Melee Tactics Wind

Melee Tactics: 

Melee Tactics “Massing” Wind

Melee Tactics: 

Melee Tactics Wind

Melee Tactics: 

Melee Tactics “Doubling” Wind

Melee Tactics: 

Melee Tactics Wind

Melee Tactics: 

Melee Tactics “Breaking the Line” Wind

Slide31: 

1588 - The Spanish Armada English Fleet 34 large warships 163 smaller vessels 2,000 guns 16,000 men Advantage: Range/Accuracy of Weapons Maneuverability Leadership Spanish Armada 62 large warships 68 smaller vessels 1,100 guns 27,000 men Advantage: Pounds per Gun Total weight of broadside. Personnel

Slide32: 

1588 - The Spanish Armada English Fleet 34 large warships 163 smaller vessels 2,000 guns 16,000 men Advantage: Range/Accuracy of Weapons Maneuverability Leadership Spanish Armada 62 large warships 68 smaller vessels 1,100 guns 27,000 men Advantage: Pounds per Gun Total weight of broadside. Personnel

Defeat of the Spanish Armada : 

Defeat of the Spanish Armada Tactics “Weather Gage” effectively utilized by British. Able to “off-fight” with longer range guns. Previously ships had to make physical contact to engage. Maneuverability now more important. English had superior seamanship skills. Spanish defeated in English Channel. Many Spanish ships wrecked in North Sea storm. Spain and its empire begin a long period of decline. England begins to establish overseas colonies - America.

Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652-1674): 

Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652-1674) Series of three naval wars. (1652-54, 1665-67, 1672-74) Dutch United Provinces gain maritime trade monopolies. Challenged by Cromwell’s England: Builds the Navy Dutch loses possessions in North America. Hudson Valley and New Amsterdam (New York City) Fatal weaknesses: Dependent on sea, threats from other continental powers, configured for shallow water. English naval tactics developed: “Fighting Instructions” “Line ahead” formations become standard. Provides ability to fire “broadsides” at enemy fleet. Royal Navy debates between Formal and Melee schools.

Anglo-French Conflicts (1689-1775): 

Anglo-French Conflicts (1689-1775) Great Britain fears France's threat to become militarily dominant in Europe. Continental element: France Army 5-to1 to the British Britain monetarily and militarily subsidies her continental allies Maritime element: Britain prospered through commerce across the Atlantic Royal Navy “shows the flag” from warships Britain gaining timber and Naval supplies from the Baltic. Britain maintained a fleet twice the size of France Permanent Fighting Instructions adopted by Royal Navy. Results of sea battles support the use of formal tactics.

Permanent Fighting Instructions: 

Permanent Fighting Instructions Wind Van Rear Center

Tactics: 

Tactics French Navy - Defensive Desired to hold the lee gage. Able to retire in order to save ships. Unable to devote resources to Navy due to wars in Europe. Fired on the “up roll” to target rigging (masts and sails). Reduce British ability to maneuver into attack position. Few British casualties. Royal Navy - Offensive Desired to hold the weather gage. Advantage to the attacking fleet. Fired on the “down roll” into the enemy hulls Splinters and debris killed and maimed French gun crews. High numbers of French casualties.

Anglo-French Conflicts (1689-1775): 

Anglo-French Conflicts (1689-1775) War of English Succession (1689-1697) English goal: Contain French aggression; maintain balance of power on continent of Europe. Battle of Barfleur Louis XIV lost the war; abandons its continental conquests; acknowledged William of Orange as King of England. War of Spanish Succession (1703-1713) Britain acquires possessions of France and her allies (e.g., Spain, Gibraltar) Battle of Malaga: Tactically indecisive, but French "flinched under bombardment" and re­treated to port. Great Britain was now leader in maritime commerce and clearly the "Mistress of the Seas."

Seven Years’ War (1756-1763): 

Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Significance: Geopolitical: Genuine world war; fought in German states, Mediterranean, Canada, West Indies, India, Africa, and Philippines. Strategic: Classic example of conflict between land power (France) and sea power (England). England thrives on trade, trade leads to wealth, wealth leads to power,

Seven Years’ War (1756-1763): 

Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Great Britain Key to victory was “Pitt's Plan” of William Pitt the Elder. “Hitting” “Holding” Pitt’s plan has lasting effect on British national military strategy: Subsidize one or more allies on the continent Use your fleet to: Raid enemy coast “holding enemy” off your allies Blockade the enemy and destroy his fleet Convoy to protect and support your own troops raiding or seizing enemy overseas colonies and its seaborne trade

Seven Years’ War (1756-1763): 

Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) French counter-strategy Raid British maritime commerce Defend French Colonies Try to invade England Known as “French and Indian War” in America. British Siege of Quebec - 1759. Wolfe defeats Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham. British defeat French at Battle of Quiberon Bay - 1759. Peace of Paris - 1763 Great Britain obtains Canada, U.S. East of Mississippi River to Appalachian Mts., Florida, and much of India. Known as “French and Indian War” in America.

Lessons from the Seven Years’ War : 

Lessons from the Seven Years’ War Potter, Nimitz, Mahan will conclude: Naval power, or sea power, was "pervasive and inexorable." Naval predominance was decisive in a world war. Paul Kennedy will conclude: Sea power was only one component of British strategy during the period. A "continental" element was always present in the British considerations.

The State of the Navies: 

The State of the Navies Great Britain Permanent Fighting Instructions -- Formal Tactics Limits ability of Admirals to concentrate fleet’s firepower. Great victories were won by General Chase French Navy is rebuilt. Superior construction, numbers, tactics, and training. Defensive tactics of a land power versus a sea power. Decline in number and condition of ships. Desire lee gage. Targeting of British sails and masts.

European Political Context: 

European Political Context Results of the Seven Years’ War The Peace of Paris, 1763, was a “truce”, in effect, not a peace. G.B. (sea power) and France (land power) potential enemies Rivalry for Empire- N. America, W. Indies, Indian Ocean G.B. wants colonials to: Pay costs of Seven Years’ War- G.B. finances seriously depleted Garrison soldiers Proclamation of 1763 Oppressive acts Resulting Rebellion becomes a renewed Anglo-French War

Slide45: 

Next week: American Revolution

Latitude: 

Latitude The North Pole is at 90° North Latitude South Pole is at 90° South Latitude. Latitude lines are parallel to each other so they are also called parallels. Each degree can be divided into sixty minutes. Each minute can be divided into sixty seconds.

Longitude: 

Longitude Requires accurate time British Longitude Board offered: £20 000 to determine longitude to an accuracy of a half a degree of a great circle (1/2 degree = 30 nautical miles) £15 000 to within 2/3 of a degree (40 nautical miles) £10 000 to within 1 degree (60 nautical miles)

Rise of New Powers: 

Rise of New Powers Vikings - Invasions of Europe from Scandinavia - 900s. Norman Invasion of England - Battle of Hastings 1066 Early Venice (1200s) Republican and Imperial Venice (1300s-mid 1400s)

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