The Micro-Fuel Cells™ For Portable Electronics: The Micro-Fuel Cells™ For Portable Electronics Robert G. Hockaday
Energy Related Devices, Inc
Contractor to Manhattan Scientifics, Inc. Slide2: Have you ever experienced this? Beep Beep
Slide3: Why Do People Own Cellular Phones? Safety
Ideally, cellular phone users would like to leave the phone “on” all the time. What we need is a power supply that is... : What we need is a power supply that is... Smaller
And Less Expensive. Conventional Fuel Cells: Conventional Fuel Cells Flow Field Plate Membrane Electrode Assembly Air Flow Pattern Fuel Channels Fuel Flow Pattern Electricity + - The Micro-Fuel Cell™: The Micro-Fuel Cell™ Thin Flexible Micro-engineered electrodes.
Methanol or ethanol liquid fuels. Slide7: Exploded View of Fuel Cell Assembly Slide8: How It Works Smaller: Smaller 3 to 5 times the specific energy of the Li-Ion batteries.
Li-Ion: 5 hour talk time (digital).
Methanol: 18-27 hours of talk time. Lighter: Lighter 6 to 7 times the energy per unit mass of the Li-Ion batteries. The upper limit is roughly 33 times.
Li-Ion: 11 days standby (Digital).
Methanol: 41 days standby time.
Upper limit of 6 months to a year. Slide11: Specific Energy Comparison With Batteries Simpler: Simpler Conventional Li-Ion batteries: recharge in 30-60 minutes for 90% charge.
Refuel in less than a minute.
Fuel and forget.
Cleaner: Cleaner Conventional Battery Disposal or Recycle Problem.
Methanol Micro-Fuel Cell.
Environmentally Benign. Less Expensive: Less Expensive Li-Ion: ~$16
Micro-Fuel Cell: $37 prototype, $5 in mass production. Fuel Cell Phone Concept Drawing: Fuel Cell Phone Concept Drawing Power Holster ™ Concept For Cellular Phones: Power Holster ™ Concept For Cellular Phones Power Bag ConceptFor Portable Electronics: Power Bag Concept For Portable Electronics Soft Cover for a cellular phone Slide18: Exploded View of Cylinder Cell Assembly Slide19: The Current Market Price/Power Envelope Slide20: Potential Fuel Cell Markets Slide21: Cellular Phone Batteries Total cell phones sold in 1998 --150 million Worldwide.
Subscriber base total in 1998 -- 300 million Worldwide, projected to be one billion by 2005.
Ratio of total batteries sold to total cell phones in 1998 --1.85 to 1.
Percentage of premium cell phones sold in 1998 --25 percent (likely to have Li batteries).
Total number of Li-ion cells sold in 1998 -- 57 million. (Nomura Research Institute, Nokia 1998 annual report)
Lithium Ion Batteries Retail for roughly $100 (1-800-Batteries, August, 1999). Slide22: Growth of Mobile Communications
Slide23: Convergence of Portable Electronics Reprinted from The Albuquerque Journal Saturday May 22,1999 - Section C-1. Slide24: Convergence of Portable Electronics Cont... The New “Flexible” Mobile Organizer Slide25: Historical Market Penetration Rate of Major Innovations
Telephone, Radio, and Personal Computers were adopted roughly at a 4% per year linear rate up to an 80% market saturation. Slide26: Market Penetration Rate of Lithium Ion Batteries 1.5% market share in 1994.
72.1% market share in 1997.
Projected 82% in 1998 (Dataquest, 1997).
Represents a market penetration rate average of 23.5% per year over the three year period. Slide27: Intellectual Property Status U.S. Patents: 4,673,624 “Fuel Cell” June 16, 1987.
5,631,099 “Surface Replica Fuel Cell” May 20,1997. Duplicate patents are applied for in the European block, Canada, Japan, Australia, Israel, Brazil, China, Mexico, Poland, Korea, Russia, Singapore, and Turkey.
5,759,712 “Surface Replica Fuel Cell” June 2, 1998. International filings are in progress (PCT application in place).
Two patents pending.
Trademarked: Power Holster, Micro-Fuel Cell, Micro-Fuel, Green Cell, and Hockaday Fuel Cell. Slide28: Current Status The Ugly Duckling: Achieved our milestone of a pre-prototype device running a cellular phone continuously in standby and making phone calls in November 1998.
Circuit patterns are being deposited.
Thick barrier cells running.
The prototype. Slide29: Critical Technical Issues Increasing the effective surface area.
Raising the internal temperature.
Physical robustness. Slide30: Challenges Cell efficiency.
Water, carbon dioxide, and heat balances.
Putting it all together.