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Attended SWOS-Newport RI BIO (cont) : BIO (cont) USS Lake Erie(CG-70) Pearl Harbor, HI Fire Control Division Officer TBMD-Exo-atmospheric Intercepts Nuclear Power School Charleston, SC Nuclear Prototype Saratoga Springs, NY BIO (cont) : BIO (cont) USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) Norfolk, VA -> San Diego, CA Machinery Division Officer Completed Engineer’s Exam July 05 Houston NROTC Consortium Current Events : Current Events A Fitter Force: Stay In Shape. That’s An Order For Norfolk-Based Sailors On Navy Ships. The Mandate For Group Workouts Is Part Of The Emphasis On A “Culture Of Fitness.” Duke Improves to 17-0 with victory over pesky NC State. Rice Owls lost to UAB 75-68 UH Cougars defeat Southern Miss. 62-58 Marine Navigation Textbooks/References : Marine Navigation Textbooks/References http://188.8.131.52/pubs/ http://www.uscg.mil/vtm/pages/rules.htm Marine NavigationCourse Overview : Coastal Piloting Lessons 1-15 Charts, Compass, Navaids, etc. Celestial and Electronic Navigation Celestial Applications Lessons 16-19 Advanced Navigation Systems Lesson 20 Marine Weather Lesson 21 Maritime Law and Naval Operations COLREGS/Rules of the Road Lessons 22-24 Marine NavigationCourse Overview Lesson 1: Introduction and Piloting Team : Lesson 1: Introduction and Piloting Team AGENDA: Types of Marine Navigation The Bridge Watch Team Members of the Piloting Team Navigation Department Organization Applicable reading: Hobbs, pp. 3-20. Types of Navigation : Types of Navigation Piloting (Coastal) Navigation Dead Reckoning Celestial Navigation Radio Navigation Electronic Navigation Navigation Defined : Navigation Defined Navigation The process of safely and efficiently directing the movements of a vessel from one place to another. The Bridge Team : The Bridge Team Officer of the Deck (OOD) Conning Officer Quartermaster of the Watch (QMOW) Boatswain’s Mate of the Watch (BMOW) Lookouts Helmsman The Piloting Team : Bridge (Piloting) Navigator Plotter Bearing Taker Brg Recorder CIC (RadNav) Piloting Officer Radar Operator Plotter The Piloting Team The Navigator’s Report : Bearing Taker “Based on an excellent fix at time :20, Navigation holds us 100 yards left of track. Nearest hazard to navigation is shoal water 500 yards off the port bow. Nearest aid to navigation is red buoy 8, off the stbd beam. Fathometer reads 45 feet beneath the sonar dome, concurs with charted depth. Distance remaining this leg; 2,500 yards. Next time to turn with be at time :25 to new course 095T. Turn bearing is 272° to Castle Rock. Navigation recommends coming right to new course 045º to regain track. Set and drift is 270ºT at 1 knot.” “Combat concurs.” The Navigator’s Report Navigation Department Administrative Organization : Navigation Department Administrative Organization Navigation DepartmentOperational Organization : Navigation DepartmentOperational Organization Slide 16: MARINE NAVIGATION - NS301 Questions? Terrestrial Coordinate System and Nautical Charts : Terrestrial Coordinate System and Nautical Charts 6/22/2010 Lesson 2: Terrestrial Coordinate System and Nautical Charts : AGENDA: Terrestrial Coordinate System (Lat/Long) Chart Projections Chart Interpretation/Scale Chart Correction System Basic Plotting Techniques Lesson 2: Terrestrial Coordinate System and Nautical Charts Earth: A “not-so-perfect” Sphere : For navigational purposes, it’s considered a “true” sphere with a circumference of 21,600 NM Earth: A “not-so-perfect” Sphere Terrestrial Coordinate System : Terrestrial Coordinate System Great Circle: The intersection of a plane passing through two points on the surface of the earth and the center of the earth. Equator Meridians (longitude) Prime Meridian (Greenwich, England) Terrestrial Coordinate System : Terrestrial Coordinate System Small Circle: A circle formed from the intersection of a plane not passing through the center of the earth Parallels (latitude) Latitude : Latitude Latitude - angular distance N/S between the equator and the parallel of a point. Latitude is measured in degrees of arc from 0°-90° either north or south of the equator. Latitude is measured along a meridian Latitude is always expressed using 2 digits Abbreviated with “L” The length of 1 degree of latitude is always 60NM Longitude : Longitude Longitude - angular distance E/W between the prime meridian and the meridian of a point. Longitude is measured in degrees of arc from 0 to 180 degrees east or west of the prime meridian. Longitude is measured along parallels of latitude Longitude is always expressed using 3 digits One degree of long does not equal 60 NM unless measured along the equator Example of lat/long Abbreviated using “Lo” or “λ” Chart Projections : Desirable qualities of a chart projection: Maintain true shape of physical features. Maintain correct proportions of features relative to one another. True scale, permitting accurate measurement of distance. Rhumb lines plot as straight lines. Lines on the earth’s surface that cross all meridians at the same angle Great circles plot as straight lines. Chart Projections Mercator Projection : Mercator Projection Mercator Projection : Mercator Projection © 1998 GeoSystems Global Corporation Mercator Projection : Mercator Projection ADVANTAGES Position, distance, and direction can be accurately measured True shape of features is maintained over small areas DISADVANTAGES Distortion of features increases with distance from the equator Great circles appear as curved lines Gnomonic Projection : Gnomonic Projection Gnomonic Projection : Gnomonic Projection ADVANTAGES Great circles appear as straight lines Distortion is minimal within 1000 nm of point of tangency DISADVANTAGES Rhumb lines appear as curved lines Distance and direction cannot be measured accurately True shape is not presented Mercator vs. Gnomonic : Mercator vs. Gnomonic Chart Projection Summary : Mercator Gnomonic Parallels: Straight lines Curved (except equator) Meridians: Straight Straight Conformal: YES NO Great Circles: Curved* Straight Rhumb lines: Straight Curved lines Applications: Piloting Great-circle determination (Distance measurement) * Except meridians Chart Projection Summary Chart Production : Chart Production Two government agencies are mainly responsible for producing nautical charts - the Defense Mapping Agency (formerly NIMA) and the National Ocean Service. Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) - concerned mainly with the production and upkeep of charts and related navigational publications covering all ocean areas of the world outside U.S. territorial waters. NOAA/National Ocean Service - concerned with charts covering inland and coastal waters of the United States and its possessions. Chart Numbering System : Chart Numbering System All charts produced by DMA and NOS are assigned a number from one to five digits, according to the scale and area they depict. # of digits Scale 1 No scale involved (supporting pub) 2 1 : 9,000,001 and smaller 3 1 : 2,000,001 to 1 :1,900,000 4 Miscellaneous and special, non-navigational charts 5 1 : 2,000,000 and larger The chart numbering system also allows the navigator to organize his/her charts into portfolios. Ocean Basins : Ocean Basins Costal Regions : Costal Regions Chart Inventory : Chart Inventory What charts do you carry onboard? All charts for regions you anticipate operating in Portfolios - 55 total 20-30 for Destroyer/Large Deck even less for Merchant Ship Chart Corrections : Chart Corrections Navigation data changes frequently Submerged wrecks, buoys get moved, etc Notice to Mariners and Local Notice to Mariners Pamphlet mailed to ships QMs make changes to the charts they need NTMs are kept on file Plotting a Position : Plotting a Position Determine the parallels on the chart that bracket the latitude. Place the pivot point of the compass on the closest line. Spread the compass until the lead rests on the given latitude. Move to the approximate longitude and swing an arc. Plotting a Position : Plotting a Position The same process is repeated using the longitude scale and the given longitude. The desired position is the intersection of these two arcs. If plotted correctly, the intersection should occur at the crest of both arcs. Measuring Distance : Measuring Distance The latitude scale can be used to measure distances, since one degree of latitude equals 60 nautical miles, everywhere on the earth. Measuring Distance : Measuring Distance NEVER use the longitude scale to determine distances on a chart. Measuring Direction : Measuring Direction All rhumb lines on a Mercator projection represent true directions. Measurement of direction on a Mercator chart is accomplished by using a parallel ruler to transfer the direction of a rhumb line to a nearby compass rose. Measuring Direction : Measuring Direction A B Review : Review What is a great circle? Name two important ones? How are latitudes measured? Longitude? What is the best projection for marine navigation? What does large scale mean? How many miles per degree of latitude? Study Questions : Study Questions Nav Workbook Ch 3 12, 13 Nav Workbook Ch 4 Sec 1: 2-4, 6, 7, 9 Sec 2: 2-6, 13 Sec 3: 1,2 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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