introduction to biology

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Figure 1.00 Biology is the scientific study of life. Life ranges from the molecular to the global. Biology across the enormous diversity of life on Earth.

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Order Regulation Growth and development Energy utilization Response to the environment Reproduction Evolution Figure UN1-1 The Properties of Life:

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Figure 1.2a Biosphere Biologists explore life at levels ranging from the biosphere to the molecules that make up cells.

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Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms Organ Systems and Organs Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules and Atoms Atom Nucleus Figure 1.2-3 Biological levels of organization

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Animals eat leaves and fruit from the tree. Leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen. Sunlight CO 2 O 2 Cycling of chemical nutrients Leaves fall to the ground and are decomposed by organisms that return minerals to the soil. Water and minerals in the soil are taken up by the tree through its roots. Leaves absorb light energy from the sun. Figure 1.5

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Figure 1.6a Chemical energy Energy flow from sunlight to producers to consumers Sunlight Producers absorb light energy and transform it into chemical energy. Chemical energy in food is transferred from plants to consumers. A fundamental characteristic of all living organisms is their use of energy to carry out life’s activities (moving, growing, reproducing)

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Heat Using energy to do work When energy is used to do work, some energy is converted to thermal energy, which is lost as heat. An animal’s muscle cells convert chemical energy from food to kinetic energy, the energy of motion. A plant’s cells use chemical energy to do work such as growing new leaves. Heat Living organisms transform energy from one form to another

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Cells Cells are the lowest level of structure that can perform the activities required for life…………….. All organisms are composed of cells. 2 major types of cells: Prokaryotic (ex. Bacteria) Eukaryotic (ex. plants and animals) All cells…………………. Are enclosed by a membrane Use DNA as their genetic information

The Properties of Life: :

Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell Cytoplasm DNA (no nucleus) Nucleus (membrane- enclosed) Membrane Membrane- enclosed organelles DNA (throughout nucleus) Figure 1.8 no organelles

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The Continuity of Life Is Based on Heritable Information in the Form of DNA Chromosomes contain most of a cell’s genetic material in the form of DNA (the substance of genes) Genes are the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Figure 1.11a Genes control protein production DNA is transcribed into RNA then translated into a protein Gene expression is the process of converting information from gene into cellular product

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Nucleus DNA Cell Nucleotide Single strand of DNA A C T T A A T C C G T A G T DNA double helix A Figure 1.11 DNA molecule -two long chains arranged in a double helix Made up of four kinds of chemical building blocks called nucleotides (A, G, C, T)

Figure 1.6a:

Feedback Mechanisms Regulate Biological Systems (allow biological processes to self-regulate) Negative feedback - as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced Positive feedback - as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product is produced © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Negative feedback A B D C Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 D D D Excess D blocks a step. Enzyme 1 Figure 1.13a Negative feedback - as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced

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W Enzyme 4 X Positive feedback Excess Z stimulates a step. Y Z  Z Z Z Enzyme 5 Enzyme 6 Figure 1.13b Positive feedback - as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product is produced

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Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life – the unifying theme of biology “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” - Theodosius Dobzhansky © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Continuity of Life Is Based on Heritable Information in the Form of DNA:

Figure 1.16 Cilia of Paramecium 15 m Cilia of windpipe cells 5 m A striking unity underlies the diversity of life; for example DNA is the universal genetic language common to all organisms Unity is evident in many features of cell structure Unity in the Diversity of Life

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Figure 1.21 Natural selection results in the adaptation of organisms to their environment An organism’s adaptations to its environment are the result of evolution

Figure 1.11:

Figure 1.7 Diversity of life includes 1.8 million species. But estimates of the total species range from 10 million to over 100 million species. Classifying the Diversity of Life

Feedback Mechanisms Regulate Biological Systems (allow biological processes to self-regulate) :

Species Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Mammalia Ursus americanus (American black bear) Chordata Animalia Eukarya Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Figure 1.14 Taxonomy -branch of biology that names and classifies species into groups, uses evolutionary relationships

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Ancestral bear Common ancestor of polar bear and brown bear Giant panda Spectacled bear Sloth bear Sun bear American black bear Asiatic black bear Polar bear Brown bear 30 25 20 15 10 5 Millions of years ago Figure 1.10

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Figure 1.15 Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya 2 m 2 m 100 m Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi Protists Kingdom Animalia

Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life – the unifying theme of biology:

Figure 1.15a (a) Domain Bacteria (b) Domain Archaea domain Bacteria and domain Archaea are the prokaryotes (single-celled) Organisms are divided into three domains

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Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Protists Kingdom Animalia Domain Eukarya includes all eukaryotic organisms 3 are multicellular kingdoms (Plantae, Fungi, Animalia )

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Figure 1.11a 1859 - Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species

Classifying the Diversity of Life:

Figure 1.11b Darwin’s book developed two main points: Descent with modification Natural selection

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Observations Conclusion Overproduction and competition Individual variation Unequal reproductive success natural selection Figure UN1-3 unequal reproductive success leads to natural selection . natural selection leads to adaptations . Natural selection = adaptations  the mechanism of evolution. Darwin observed……..

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Population with varied inherited traits Elimination of individuals with certain traits Figure 1.12a

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Reproduction of survivors Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success Figure 1.12b

Figure 1.15a:

Figure 1.20 Population with varied inherited traits Elimination of individuals with certain traits Reproduction of survivors Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success 1 2 3 4 the environment “selects” for the propagation of beneficial traits Darwin called this process natural selection Evolution occurs due to the unequal reproductive success of individuals

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Figure 1.17 “Unity in diversity” arises from “descent with modification” Ex. the forelimb of the bat, human, horse and the whale flipper all share a common skeletal architecture Fossils provide additional evidence of anatomical unity from descent with modification

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THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Scientific process includes making observations of structures and processes that we can observe and measure , forming hypotheses, and testing them

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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Data are recorded and analyzed observations or items of information (measurement) Quantitative data - or recorded measurements, which are sometimes organized into tables and graphs (weight, temp, time, etc) Qualitative data - descriptions or observations rather than measurements

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Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Revise and repeat Figure UN1-4 scientific method = a series of steps. hypothesis - a proposed explanation for observations experiments - test the hypothesis to see if results are as predicted  “If…….then”. Hypothesis-Driven Science

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Observation: My flashlight doesn’t work. Question: What’s wrong with my flashlight? Hypothesis: The flashlight’s batteries are dead. Prediction: If I replace the batteries, the flashlight will work. Figure 1.15-1

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Observation: My flashlight doesn’t work. Question: What’s wrong with my flashlight? Prediction: If I replace the batteries, the flashlight will work. Experiment: I replace the batteries with new ones. Experiment supports hypothesis; make additional predictions and test them. Hypothesis: The flashlight’s batteries are dead. Figure 1.15-2

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Observation: My flashlight doesn’t work. Question: What’s wrong with my flashlight? Prediction: If I replace the batteries, the flashlight will work. Experiment: I replace the batteries with new ones. Experiment supports hypothesis; make additional predictions and test them. Experiment does not support hypothesis; revise hypothesis or pose new one. Revise Hypothesis: The flashlight’s batteries are dead. Figure 1.15-3

Figure 1.17:

Hypothesis-based science often makes use of two or more alternative hypotheses Failure to falsify a hypothesis does not prove a hypothesis to be true you replace your flashlight bulb, and it now works; this supports the hypothesis that your bulb was burnt out, but does not prove it (perhaps the first bulb was inserted incorrectly) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE:

Scarlet kingsnake ( non-venomous) Key Range of scarlet kingsnake only Overlapping ranges of scarlet kingsnake and eastern coral snake Eastern coral snake ( venomous ) North Carolina South Carolina Figure 1.25 122122 1212121 1212121 12121211 1212121 A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Mimicry in Snake Populations

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Observation 1: Many venomnous species are brightly colored, which may warn potential predators Observation 2: Mimics are non-venomnous but look similar to the venomnous species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hypothesis: mimicry evolved in non-poisonous species as an adaptation that reduces their chances of being eaten by predators

Hypothesis-Driven Science:

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Eastern coral snake (poisonous) Scarlet kingsnake (non-poisonous) Prediction: IF predators inherit an avoidance of the venomnous coral snake’s color pattern, THEN the colorful mimic kingsnake will be attacked less often in the regions where the snakes ranges overlap

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Field Experiment with Artificial Snakes: experimental group - artificial snakes resembling kingsnakes control group - artificial snakes resembling plain brown snakes Equal numbers of both types were placed at field sites After 4 weeks, the artificial snakes were collected and the bite or claw marks on snakes counted © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Figure 1.26 Artificial kingsnakes – no marks Brown artificial snakes - multiple claw or bite marks The data fit the predictions of the mimicry hypothesis: the artifical kingsnakes were attacked less frequently in the geographic region where venomous coral snakes are found

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Figure 1.27 Artificial kingsnakes Brown artificial snakes Percent of total attacks on artificial snakes 83% 84% 100 80 60 40 20 0 Venomous Coral snakes are absent Venomous Coral snakes are present 17% 16% RESULTS

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Experimental Controls and Repeatability A controlled experiment compares an experimental group (the artificial kingsnakes ) with a control group (the artificial brown snakes) Ideally, only the variable of interest (the effect of coloration on the behavior of predators) differs between the control and experimental groups © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. observations and experimental results must be repeatable

Figure 1.25:

Figure 1.UN01 Theory: Broader in scope than a hypothesis General - can lead to new testable hypotheses Supported by a large body of evidence

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