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World War II: 

World War II Carnage Abroad and Changes At Home, 1941-1945

U. S. Entry into War: 

U. S. Entry into War Response to Japanese gamble that it could effect the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and U. S. wouldn’t effectively challenge U. S. war in Europe resulted from Hitler’s declaration of War on U. S. on Dec. 11, following U. S. declaration of War on Japan on Dec. 8.

World War II: 

World War II Transforming event at home and abroad U. S. had to mobilize society and economy at unprecedented levels War shape experiences of a generation and had particular impacts on Women, African-Americans, Mexicanos, and Japanese-Americans. U. S. military strategy in war: Europe first, then Japan.

Holding Action in Pacific: 

Holding Action in Pacific Pacific had become a Japanese lake by Spring ’42, with the fall of the Philippines. U. S. victories at Coral Sea (May 7-8, 1942), Midway (June 4-5, 1942), and Guadalcanal (August 7, 1942-February 21, 1943) arrested Japanese expansion, and crippled their naval airpower This permits U. S. to focus on Europe

The War at Home: 

The War at Home War Production Board managed conversion from civilian to military production OSRAD—created the bazooka, techniques to isolate blood plasma OPA—ration coupons and price ceilings Smith-Connally War Labor Disputes Act allowed government to seize plants useful to war when there were strikes War inflated national debt by 6x, but 45% of total war costs were paid with tax revenues

War Transforms a Nation: 

War Transforms a Nation Western states experience population boom due to war industries Women serve in military (over 200,000) and 6 million worked in war related industries. Executive Order 8802 provides non-discrimination in Defense hiring for African Americans Double V Military remained racially-segregated: Tuskegee Airmen defy stereo-types, but race riots occurred around bases where large numbers of African Americans were stationed.

War Transforms a Nation: 

War Transforms a Nation Bracero program brought 200,000 Mexican laborers to U. S. 17 Mexicanos win CMH 1943 Zoot Suit Riots 33% of eligible Native Americans Serve in War—many as “Code Talkers” Executive Order 9066—Japanese Americans interned: affirmed by Supreme Court in Korematsu v. U. S.

Dine Code Talkers: 

Dine Code Talkers

Zoot Suit rioters: Why didn’t they arrest the white boys?: 

Zoot Suit rioters: Why didn’t they arrest the white boys?

You pay for who your parents are.: 

You pay for who your parents are.

War Transforms a Nation: 

War Transforms a Nation Rural people flock to cities and many acquire useful skills for the post war economy Service Personnel eligible for benefits under Serviceman’s Readjustment Act (G. I. Bill)—loans to start small businesses and $s to go to college. Origin of Middle Class norm in U. S.

War in Europe: 

War in Europe Operation Torch (November 1943) Casablanca Conference (1943)—unconditional surrender of Axis Battle of Atlantic—won by U. S. in 1943 Sicily invaded on July 10, 1943 September 1944, Italy mainland invaded Anzio landings on January 22, 1944 Rome fell on June 4, 1944

Operation Overlord and After: 

Operation Overlord and After Teheran Conference—Cross-channel invasion June 6, 1944—landings in Normandy (5,000 U. S. casualties on Day One) Paris fell August 25, 1944 Battle of the Bulge, Dec. 16, 1944—January 26, 1945 March 7, 1945, Bridge at Remagen seized May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered

Ike with Paratroopers: 

Ike with Paratroopers

What the Allies found in the 3rd Reich: 

What the Allies found in the 3rd Reich

War in the Pacific: 

War in the Pacific Island Hoping and Leapfrogging January 1943, New Guinea Invaded Tarawa invaded, Nov. 20, 1943 Marianas secured on June 19, 20, 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf, October 25, 1944 Iwo Jima, February 19, 1945 Okinawa, April 1, 1945

War in the Pacific: 

War in the Pacific U. S. plans to invade Japan: Operations Coronet and Olympic, but war casualties rise Firebombing raids on Tokyo, March 1945 Decision to use Atomic Bomb August 6, 1945—Hiroshima; August 9, 1945, Nagasaki Japanese sue for peace on August 14, 1945 Formal Surrender on U. S. Missouri, September 2, 1945.

Hiroshima: courtesy RW & B: 

Hiroshima: courtesy RW & B

Ongoing Controversies: 

Ongoing Controversies Did FDR know about Pear Habor in advance? Could U. S. have done something to liberate death camps sooner? Did the U. S. really need to nuke Japan?

Balance Sheet : 

Balance Sheet 17 Million soldiers and 19 million civilians died world wide War cost approximately $1,000,000,000,000 6 million Soviets died in Battle U. S. lost 294,000 servicemen in combat, 600,000 wounded, and 114,000 others killed in war related accidents.

U. S. Military Cemetery at Omaha Beach: 

U. S. Military Cemetery at Omaha Beach

U. S. Cemetery, Luxembourg : 

U. S. Cemetery, Luxembourg

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