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Drugs of Abuse Detection: Parents, Children, and Home: 

Drugs of Abuse Detection: Parents, Children, and Home David J. Kuntz, PhD, DABFT, DFTCB Northwest Toxicology Salt Lake City, UT 84124 Phone: 801-293-2300

Objectives of Presentation: 

Objectives of Presentation Identify matrices for testing in children Meconium, blood, hair, oral fluid, skin swipes, urine Interpretation of test results Mechanism involved in collection Laboratory processes in testing

Basics in Forensic Drug Testing: 

Basics in Forensic Drug Testing Standard Operating Procedures collection chain of custody transfer to and receipt by lab screening for drugs confirmation for drugs Quality Control

Drug and Integrity Tests in Urine: 

Drug and Integrity Tests in Urine Drugs Amphetamines Cocaine Opiates Marijuana PCP Numerous others depending on the situation Integrity Tests Creatinine pH (acidity) Oxidants Specific Gravity Follow-up/suspicion tests Chromium Soap, Bleach Nitrites Glutaraldehyde Iodine, fluoride & others

Initial Screening: 

Initial Screening Often called the initial or immunoassay test All specimens are subjected to this test. It provides a rapid cost effective system to identify “presumptive positive” specimens This process requires 1 mL of urine to complete and will provide results for up to ten tests within 30 seconds Adulterants often target this process to change a positive screen to a negative test

Confirmation Testing: 

Confirmation Testing The first step is to separate the drug from other components of the urine (2-4 hours) Completed by a technique known as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) The GC further separates the remaining urine components The MS identifies each drug through a chemical fingerprint which is unique - the identification is conclusive

Hair Testing: 

Hair Testing Drugs are primarily incorporated through the blood supply at the root end and are deposited during the hair shaft growth. Other drug incorporation mechanisms are sweat and scalp oils which soak into the hair shaft. Shampooing of the hair removes drug residue from the environment on a daily basis. Environmental contamination is also removed at the lab prior to testing for screening and confirmation with a methanol wash.

Drug Tests Available in Hair: 

Drug Tests Available in Hair Amphetamines Amphetamine & Methamphetamine MDMA, MDA, MDEA Cocaine Benzoylecgonine Cocaine, Norcocaine, Cocaethylene Opiates Codeine, Morphine, Heroin, 6-Acetylmorphine Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone Marijuana 9-Carboxy THC, THC Parent PCP

Hair Collection Facts : 

Hair Collection Facts Workplace testing only involves the first 1.5 inches from the scalp and represents 90 days of exposure Normally takes 7-10 days for incorporated drugs to grow above the scalp Segmental analysis can provide time frames of drug use A full sample requires up to 200 strands of 1.5 inch long hair - shorter hair requires more strands

Hair Adulteration: 

Hair Adulteration Although the drugs are incorporated into the hair shaft, drugs can be removed through rigorous “cleaning” of the hair with vinegar, bleaching, coloring, chlorine from swimming, or even damaged from excessive sun damage Cannot remove it all and can still be detected. Infrequent use of drugs could be diminished to avoid reporting

Hair Cutoffs (pg/mg): 

Hair Cutoffs (pg/mg) Drug Screen Confirmation Cannabinoids 1.0 0.1 Opiates 200 300 6-AM 300 Amphetamines* 300 300 MDA/MDMA 300 *Amphetamine must be >50 pg/mg to report methamphetamine PCP 300 300 Cocaine** 500 500 Benzoylecgonine 50 Cocaethylene 50 Norcocaine 50 **Metabolite must be > 50 pg/mg present to report cocaine



Hair Collection Problems: 

Hair Collection Problems Not enough hair to collect! Not enough hair cut Religious reasons Shaving head before test Hair is suddenly bleached Lice

Hair Screening & Oral Fluid Screening: 

Hair Screening & Oral Fluid Screening ELISA screening technology is used for hair testing using 96 well technology Concentration is correlated to the color intensity in the well and is compared to calibrators All processes are computer controlled robotics - but is much slower and more expensive than urine screening - but multiple times more sensitive than urine methods

Hair & Oral Fluid Confirmation Techniques: 

Hair & Oral Fluid Confirmation Techniques Confirmations for all drugs except marijuana can be completed on standard GC/MS’s Marijuana must be confirmed by GC/MS/MS due to the low levels in the hair Extractions and confirmatory techniques are highly sophisticated to achieve the sensitivity and selectivity required for successful analysis

Oral Fluid Testing: 

Oral Fluid Testing No special collection facilities or fees Collection can occur anywhere Collection device requires only two minutes in the mouth and is witnessed by the collector Possibility of adulteration is drastically reduced Indicates recent drug usage and correlates with impairment of the donor by looking at parent drug rather than metabolites Screening and confirmation processes are similar to hair

Forehead Swipe Collections : 

Forehead Swipe Collections A moistened gauze swab across the forehead can collect amphetamines, cocaine, and other drugs that are sweated through the skin or included in skin oils Drugs can be detected within a few hours up to several day Swab can be placed into a zip-lock bag and sent to the laboratory Patches are available for up to 7-day monitoring

Meconium and Blood: 

Meconium and Blood Meconium provides for a long term exposure of drugs during the pregnancy and would be the primary sample for the detection of drugs Would not be the specimen of choice once the infant has been released. Urine or oral fluids would provide results of recent events. Blood is typically not a specimen of choice since the Lab needs too much blood for testing for drugs of abuse. Require 1-2 mL to provide minimal testing

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