KNES 455 Chapter 10 Essentials-with audio part 1

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Chapter 10: Nutritional Factors in Health and Performance:

Chapter 10: Nutritional Factors in Health and Performance KNES 455G


Evaluate First one needs to evaluate the adequacy of the diet prior to an intervention or modification Food Pyramid was replaced in ’93 by MyPyramid Which was then replaced by MyPlate( / ) This is a good starting point for an evaluation.

Food Intake Per Caloric Intake:

Food Intake Per Caloric Intake Calories 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 Grain 5 oz 6 oz 6 oz 7 oz 8 oz 9 oz 10 oz 10 oz Vegetable 2 cp 2.5 cp 2.5 cp 3 cp 3 cp 3.5 cp 3.5 cp 4 cp Fruits 1.5 cp 1.5 cp 2 cp 2 cp 2 cp 2 cp 2.5 cp 2.5 cp Milk 3 cp 3 cp 3 cp 3 cp 3 cp 3 cp 3 cp 3 cp Meats and Beans 5 oz 5 oz 5.5 oz 6 oz 6.5 oz 6.5 oz 7 oz 7 oz Oils 5 tsp 5 tsp 6 tsp 7 tsp 8 tsp 8 tsp 10 tsp 11 tsp


Proteins Professionals who are interested in increasing strength are by nature interested in the role of protein Protein Quality High Quality Protein High Biological Value These all refer to protein that has Amino Acid profiles that are similar to the needs of the body

Vegan, Vegetarian:

Vegan, Vegetarian Important to consume the entire complement of essential amino acids Eating a variety of different beans, legume and vegetables will increase the likelihood that all amino acids will be consumed in the course of one day.

Protein Requirements:

Protein Requirements The actual requirements are for Amino Acids not proteins themselves Need for these amino acids is based upon cell turn-over The constant breakdown and regeneration of cells is supplied via the bodies amino acid pool This pool needs to be replenished via the diet

Protein Requirements:

Protein Requirements Two Factors to Consider Biological Value High Biological Values will thus require lower intakes and visa versa Caloric Balance When the body is in negative caloric balance the ingested protein in part ends up metabolized for caloric demand and not all replenishing the amino acid pool

Protein Requirements:

Protein Requirements Expressed as a percentage of the diet Commonly recommended to be 10 to 15% of the kCal consumed Recommended for adults 0.8g per kg of bodyweight

Requirement for Athletes:

Requirement for Athletes Both aerobic and anaerobic training can increase the need for dietary protein Aerobic athletes require above the 0.8g/kg ratio and possible up to 1.4g/kg as protein is consumed as a source of energy for metabolism Anaerobic athletes require more, heavy resistance training as a training stimuli increases need to 1.7g/kg A general recommendation is 1.5 to 2.0g/kg which ensures adequate intake (little extra isn’t bad)


Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Disaccharides Polysaccharides High GI index Carbs and Low Glycogen Storage for Glucose that is quickly accessible Stored in muscle and liver

Daily Requirements:

Daily Requirements Roughly 50 to 100g is needed per day to prevent Ketosis (high levels of ketone bodies in the blood) Recommended that 45 to 65% of the total daily calories come from carbohydrates For aerobic athletes who have high glycogen turn over rates 8 to 10g per Kilogram of bodyweight This level is sufficient to restore glycogen levels within 24hrs

Fat Requirements:

Fat Requirements Approximately 34 % of the calories in a typical A merican diet are from lipids Suggested 5 to 10% of kCal from Omega 6 0.6% to 1.2% from Omega 3 These are essential fatty acids High fat diets (38%) have been shown to increase time to exhaustion in some athletes


Vitamins These are organic substances (meaning they have Carbon atoms) Needed in small amounts Perform specific metabolic functions


Minerals Non-organic Required for normal function Iron – needed for oxygen transport Calcium- needed for bone health

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