KNES 455G Chapter 5 Essentials -audio part 3

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Adaptation of Tendons, Ligaments and Fascia:

Adaptation of Tendons, Ligaments and Fascia Most made of Collagen (Type I in bone, tendons and ligaments, Type II in cartilage) Synthesis of collagen arises from a parent molecule, procollagen (secreted by fibroblasts), that is packaged with protective extensions that are cleaved near the site of collagen addition by enzymes. Once cleaved of extensions, the active collagen aligns with other collagen molecules.

Adaptation of Tendons, Ligaments and Fascia:

Adaptation of Tendons, Ligaments and Fascia Tendons and ligaments are composed primarily of parallel arrangements of collagen. These are covalently cross linked to provided increase strength. Ligaments also contain elastin, which provides greater stretch (needed for normal joint function).

Adaptation of Tendons, Ligaments and Fascia:

Adaptation of Tendons, Ligaments and Fascia Increase in collagen fibril diameter A greater number of covalent cross links within the hypertrophied fiber An increase in the number of collagen fibrils Increase in packing density of collagen fibrils. Increase in number and size of fibroblasts.

Tendon Structure:

Tendon Structure

Tendon Stiffness:

Tendon Stiffness Heavy resistance training increases the stiffness (force transmission/unit of strain) Studies have shown increase of 15 to 19% in the achilles tendon following training. Light resistance training does not appear to alter tendon stiffness.


Hormonal Acute Elevate Testosterone (male) Growth Hormone (decrease pH) Cortisol Larger with great muscle mass exercises These exercise when performed early many enhance smaller muscle mass exercise later in a sesson (enhanced testosterone response) Chronic Only changes in growth hormone pulses have been demonstrated to be altered via resistance training. Chronic increase may results in down regulation of receptor (why likely no change) also why anabolic supplement users ‘ cycle ’

Hormone Receptors:

Hormone Receptors Resistance exercise has been shown to up regulate androgen receptors within 48 to 72 hours after exercise. However, there may be an initial period of down regulation within an hour of exercise. This down regulation appears to be attenuated by protein carbohydrate supplementation pre/post workout.

Cardiovascular Adaptation:

Cardiovascular Adaptation Acute  HR  Stroke Volume (eccentric phase)  Q (eccentric phase)  Blood Pressure Reactive Hyperemia  maximal contractions impede blood flow during sets, which subsequently increases during rest Chronic Some slight reduction have been chronically observed with resistance training  Heart Rate (5 to 12%)  Blood Pressure (2 to 4%) Decreases in the magnitude of the acute responses of HR and Blood Pressure Increased left posterior ventricle wall and intraventricular septum thickness, without an increase in ventricular chamber size* * Difference between anaerobic and aerobic training.

Ventilatory Response:

Ventilatory Response Generally the ventilatory response is not a rate limiting factor in anaerobic exercise. Therefore it is generally only slightly changed via anaerobic training. Ventilation does increase acutely with resistance exercise Chronic adaptations include increased tidal breathing and Ve during maximal efforts.

Combination of Aerobic and Anaerobic?:

Combination of Aerobic and Anaerobic? May interfere with strength and power gains Added resistance training may interfere with gains in VO 2 max Aerobic training generally results in smaller muscle fibers to enhance capillary interaction and oxygen kinetics. In combined training there appears to be a lack of increase in Type I fiber size and a conversion of some Type IIa to Type IIc (more oxidative) These seem to suggest that there is some antagonism of simultaneous changes in strength and endurance of the muscle.


Overtraining Overtraining: an excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training that results in fatigue, illness or injury. Overreaching: Excessive training on a short term basis, recovery is possible with a few days of rest.

NS and Overtraining:

NS and Overtraining Sympathetic Overtraining Syndrome: increased sympathetic nervous system activity at rest Parasympathetic Overtraining Syndrome: includes increase parasympathetic activity at rest and with exercise.


Overtraining Can result in decreased strength and power in the muscles used. A plateau phase in performance that is below the capability of the athletes. Generally can be avoided if sufficient rest is built into a program.

Trained, Detrained and Aerobic:

Trained, Detrained and Aerobic

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