KNES 455G Chapter 5 Essentials -audio part 1

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Chapter 5: Adaptations to Anaerobic Training Programs:

Chapter 5: Adaptations to Anaerobic Training Programs KNES 455G

Anaerobic Training:

Anaerobic Training Consists of high intensity intermittent bouts of exercise

Neural Adaptation:

Neural Adaptation Anaerobic Training can elicit adaptations from the higher brain centers down to the level of the muscle fiber. Increased neural drive Increased agonist muscle recruitment Increased firing rate (rate coding) Reduction in inhibitory action (i.e. GTO activity)

Adaptations to Resistance Training:

Adaptations to Resistance Training

Central Adaptations:

Central Adaptations Primary motor cortex activity increases when greater force, or new, movements are being performed A great deal of the adaption to anaerobic training takes place along the descending corticospinal tracts.

Central Adaptations:

Central Adaptations Untrained individuals display limited ability to maximally recruit motor units. It was shown that untrained individuals may only be able to active 70% of their muscle tissue. Training results in a much greater ability to recruit motor units.

Potential Sites of Central Adaptation:

Potential Sites of Central Adaptation

Max Force:

Max Force When maximum force is needed, all motor units in a muscle are required to be active. This also involves differences in rate coding. Max strength and power increases seen in agonist muscle are the results of increased recruitment, rate of firing, synchronization of firing.

Recruitment of Motor Units:

Recruitment of Motor Units Size Principle: recruitment of motor units is based upon an orderly process based upon the relationship between motor unit twitch force and recruitment threshold (electrical signal needed to depolarize) Muscles consist of a mixture of Type I and II fibers, thus there is a spectrum of force production capacity. Prior to activating high end motor units, the motor units below it in the spectrum will have been active.

Recruitment of High Force Motor Units:

Recruitment of High Force Motor Units For max force all available motor units need to be recruited, at a high firing rate. Once a high force motor unit has been recruited, subsequent recruitment is easier. This may be one of the keys to understanding changes in strength power athletes with training.

Size Principal:

Size Principal

Selective Recruitment:

Selective Recruitment There are circumstances by which fast-twitch motor units may be recruited without recruitment of slow-twitch These instances generally involve a plyometric movement or a rapid change in direct. Selective recruitment involves the recruitment of higher threshold motor units immediately in response to specific athletic actions.

Neural Activation after Training:

Neural Activation after Training A muscle does not require as much activation to overcome a constant force after hypertrophy has occurred. Important training principal, if one continues to lift the same weight eventually the number of motor units recruited to lift that weight will be reduced. Therefore to maintain a pattern of maximum recruitment of motor units during resistance training the resistance must be progressive. This is referred to as progressive overload.

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