cellprocesses1 chapter6

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Hi Dario,can u pls send me this presentation,it is very good to teach the students.

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Copyright Notice & Acknowledgments: 

Copyright Notice & Acknowledgments Many figures are under copyright by the publisher (Pearson Education Inc. 2005). These lectures and figures are posted for the sole purpose of my students and should not be replicated or copied by any individuals not directly associated with my class.

Life’s Cellular Processes: 

Life’s Cellular Processes DNA replication Protein Synthesis Cellular Respiration Mitosis and Meiosis

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Over the next two days... Review of ATP, mitochondria and chloroplasts Cool fact of the day: marathoners vs. sprinters Introduction to cellular respiration Anaerobic vs. aerobic respiration Fermentation Aerobic cellular respiration in-depth Cellular Respiration

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A little review: ATP, chloroplasts and mitochondria

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ATP Light Chemical Energy ATP ATP is the main energy source for cellular work and a special type of chemical energy.

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ATP ATP stands for Adenosine Tri Phosphate. The high energy bonds between phosphate groups are unstable and difficult to keep together.

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Plant Cell Energy Processing in the Cell Chloroplasts conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars Mitochondria conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP

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Chloroplasts conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars Mitochondria conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP Energy Processing in the Cell

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Animal Cell Energy Processing in the Cell Chloroplasts conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars Mitochondria conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP

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What it has… two membrane layers outer membrane inner membrane which has many folds called cristae mitochondrial matrix: fluid within the inner membrane (site of many chemical reactions) What happens there… converts chemical energy of sugar to chemical energy of ATP Mitochondria

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ATP powers all activities in the human body. At any given time, most of the cells in your body are producing ATP just to maintain life’s functions. Table 6.3 Why is this important?

Cool Fact of the Day: 

Cool Fact of the Day How is a marathon runner different than a sprinter? The Boston Marathon April 17, 2006

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Long-distance marathon runners have many slow fibers in their muscles. Slow fibers break down glucose for ATP production aerobically (using oxygen). These cells have lots of mitochondria for making energy. These muscle cells can sustain repeated, long contractions, but the contractions are slow. How is a marathon runner different than a sprinter?

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Sprinters have more fast muscle fibers. Fast fibers make ATP without oxygen— anaerobically. Have fewer mitochondria. They can contract quickly and supply energy for short bursts of intense activity. How is a marathon runner different than a sprinter?

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Most muscles have both slow and fast fibers. Relative % of fiber types varies with muscle’s job and is genetic. Because this trait is genetic, there is some support for people being born sprinters or born marathoners. The innate potential of fibers, however, can be modified through training and exercise. How is a marathon runner different than a sprinter? Fast Twitch Fiber Slow Twitch Fiber

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Nearly all the cells in our body break down sugars for ATP production. Most cells of most organisms harvest energy aerobically (using oxygen), like slow muscle fibers The aerobic harvesting of energy from sugar is called aerobic cellular respiration Aerobic cellular respiration yields CO2, H2O, and a large amount of ATP Introduction to Cellular Respiration

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Aerobic cellular respiration breaks down glucose molecules and banks their energy in ATP The process uses O2 and releases CO2 and H2O. Figure 6.2A Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide Water Energy Introduction to Cellular Respiration Get 36 ATP

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Under some conditions and in some cells, like those in fast twitch fibers, anaerobic cellular respiration leads to the conversion of sugars into some energy without the use of oxygen. This process is often called fermentation. Introduction to Cellular Respiration Get only 2 ATP

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Cellular respiration is different from breathing, though they are closely related. O2 CO2 BREATHING Lungs CO2 O2 Bloodstream Muscle cells carrying out CELLULAR RESPIRATION Figure 6.1 Sugar + O2  ATP + CO2 + H2O Introduction to Cellular Respiration

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Photosynthesis Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate Aerobic respiration Fermentation O2 available O2 not available Introduction to Cellular Respiration

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The below reaction represents… The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide through breathing. Aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration. 0 A B C ? Glucose Carbon dioxide Energy 6 CO2 + high energy waste product +

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0 A B C ? Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide Water The below reaction represents… The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide through breathing. Aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration.

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Glycolysis In cytoplasm, glucose is broken down into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP Citric Acid Cycle In mitochondria, leads to complete breakdown of glucose and produces a small amount of ATP. Oxidative Phosphorylation In mitochondria, uses electrons from citric acid cycle to harness energy and produce a large amount of ATP. Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration Overall reaction of aerobic respiration

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Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation All of these stages consist of a series of oxidation-reduction reaction (also known as redox reactions). Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration Overall reaction of aerobic respiration

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Energy is contained in the arrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds that hold an organic molecule together. Movement of electrons from one molecule to another is an oxidation-reduction reaction. Oxidation is the loss of electrons from one molecule, and reduction is the addition of electrons to a molecule. Redox Reactions

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Redox Reactions in Cellular Respiration Loss of Hydrogen Atoms (oxidation) Gain of Hydrogen Atoms (reduction) Glucose is being oxidized through a series of reactions. Oxygen is being reduced along the way.

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During these redox reactions, oxygen is accepting electrons. Oxygen attracts electrons very strongly. Electrons lose potential energy as they fall towards oxygen. That energy is captured to make ATP.

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Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation Now, in your prelecture assignment, there is an in-class activity (starting on page 3). Complete Activity 6A on the webCD and all the questions up until activity 6B. We will review the answers when you are complete. With that information on redox reactions, let’s begin to explore aerobic respiration. Overall reaction of aerobic respiration

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Overview of Aerobic Respiration

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Overview of Aerobic Respiration

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Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation Now, complete Activity 6B on the webCD and all the associated questions. We will review glycolysis when you are done. Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration Overall reaction of aerobic respiration

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Overview of Glycolysis

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Substrate Level Phosphorylation

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Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration

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Photosynthesis Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate Aerobic respiration Fermentation O2 available O2 not available Introduction to Cellular Respiration Citric Acid Cycle & Oxidative Phosphorylation

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To investigate fermentation, complete Activity 6E and the associated questions in the prelecture assignment. We will review the answers when you are done. Fermentation

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Alcohol Fermentation

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Lactic Acid Fermentation

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Photosynthesis Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate Aerobic respiration Fermentation O2 available O2 not available Introduction to Cellular Respiration Citric Acid Cycle & Oxidative Phosphorylation

Life’s Cellular Processes: 

Life’s Cellular Processes DNA replication Protein Synthesis Cellular Respiration Mitosis and Meiosis

Slide41: 

Photosynthesis Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate Aerobic respiration Fermentation O2 available O2 not available Synopsis of Cellular Respiration

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Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration

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Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Now, complete Activity 6C and the associated questions in your prelecture assignment Oxidative Phosphorylation Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration Overall reaction of aerobic respiration

Slide44: 

The Kreb’s Cycle

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The Kreb’s Cycle

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The Kreb’s Cycle

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Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration

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Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation Now, complete Activity 6D and the associated questions in your prelecture assignment. Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration Overall reaction of aerobic respiration

Slide49: 

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Slide50: 

Several genetic diseases affect the mitochondria. Most of these diseases result in malfunction of oxidative phosphorylation. wide range of symptom Mitochondria has its own DNA, which is inherited from the mom only. Thus, moms with these disease pass on the disease, while fathers do not. Some Cool Facts for the Day about Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration

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Three Stages of Aerobic Respiration

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Photosynthesis Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate Aerobic respiration Fermentation O2 available O2 not available Synopsis of Cellular Respiration

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Conversion of Food to Energy

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Energy is required to synthesize necessary biological molecules.

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