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Introduction: Job design. : Introduction: Job design. Job design is the arrangement or rearrangement of work aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge. It helps to determine: What task are done How the task are done How many task are done and In what order the job is done. The uses of job design in the organisation of work. Job design principles can address problems such as; 1. Work overload 2. Work under load 3. Repetitiveness 4. Excessive working hours History. : History. Fredrick Winslow Taylor was born in March 20, 1856, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S and died March 21, 1915, Philadelphia)U.S. Fredrick Winslow Taylor was an inventor and engineer. Taylor was regarded as the father of scientific management and was one of the first management consultants and director of a famous firm. Fredrick Winslow Taylor’s approach to job design. : Fredrick Winslow Taylor’s approach to job design. Engineering Approach; The most prominent single element in the Engineering approach, envisaged by FW Taylor and others, was the task idea. The work of every employee is fully planned by the management at least one day in advance and each man received in most cases complete written instructions, describing in details the task which he is to accomplish. This task specifies not only what is to be done but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. The principles offered by scientific management to job design for organizational performance can be summarized as: Scientific study of work. Taylor advocated fragmentation and regularization of work to reap the advantages of specialization.* Work should be arranged so that workers can be efficient.* Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job.* Employees should be trained to perform the job.* Monetary compensation should be used to reward successful performance of the job. These principles to job design seem to be quite rational and appealing because they point towards increased organizational performance. Specialization and regularization over a period of time result in job incumbents becoming experts quickly, leading to higher levels of output. Despite the assumed gains in efficiency ,behavioral scientists have found that some job incumbents dislike specialized and routine jobs. Problems with engineering approach. : Problems with engineering approach. 1. Repetition 2. Mechanical pacing 3. No end product 4. Little social interaction 5. No input Behavioural approach to job design : Behavioural approach to job design The behavioral approach focuses on the psychological and sociological processes (attitude, motivations, and group dynamics) that influence employee performance. While the classical approach focuses on the job of workers, the behavioral approach focuses on the workers in these jobs. Workers desisted the formal and impersonal approach of classical writers. Behavioral approach started in 1930. Human relations movements and development of organizational behaviour are the two branches that contributed to the behavioural approach. Contributions of behavioural science approach. : Contributions of behavioural science approach. The behavioural science approach is concerned with the social and psychological aspects of human behaviour in organisation. Many of the conclusions of the Hawthorne studies were reaffirmed by the subsequent research studies, but certain ideas were extended and others highlighted by the behavioural scientists. Some of the important elements of the behavioural science approach are highlighted below. Individuals differ in terms of their attitudes, perception and value systems. Therefore, they react differently to the same situation. People working in an organisation have their needs and goals, which may differ from the organisation’s needs and goals. Individual behaviour is closely linked with the behaviour of the group to which he belongs. Differences between FW. Taylor’s approach and behavioural approach to designing jobs. : Differences between FW. Taylor’s approach and behavioural approach to designing jobs. 1. Nature of work: The engineering approach also known as FW. Taylor’s approach focuses on the job of workers that is how the organisation goal could be achieved without paying particular attention to the employees while the behavioural approach focuses on the workers in these jobs and how to sustain them. 2. Design of work: The engineering approach concentrate on the enlargement of the job while the behavioural approach deals with both job enlargement and job enrichment. 3. End product: The engineering approach has no end product which means the employees had no enthusiasm in the work which does not support any identifiable end product and also employees performed a few task repeatedly while behavioural approach give the employees the chance to be encouraged and supported by the wild range ideas, therefore this makes them end their tasks successfully. Continuation of differences : Continuation of differences Principles: Fredrick Winslow Taylors approach was based on traditional principles which sort to only concentrate on the task been given and how the task or job design could be enforced to improve the effectiveness of the organization but due to the existence of Abraham Maslow hierarchy of needs and McGregor's two factor theory which is theory X and theory Y, which sort to change things and introduce the fact and existence of motivation as a major source of encouragement to workers in order to put in their best in support of the organization’s objectives. Division of labor: the classical approach by Fw Taylor brought up the idea of division of labor. Managers have now realized the need to assign roles and responsibilities whiles the behavioral theory does not concentrate on this aspect but rather find other ways of maintaining the employees and outlining responsibilities. Conclusion : Conclusion From all the research and everything said above we as a group realized that there are broadly two approaches to designing job: the engineering approach and the behavioural approach. The engineering approach based on scientific management and industrial engineering principles lays emphasis on designing jobs technical efficiency. Social and psychological needs of human beings are not taken into account; as a result, employees become alienated and frustrated which gets reflected in their poor mental health and poor organisation performance. The behavioural approach used to redesign jobs enriched both the technical and human requirements for achieving optimum efficiency. Jobs are enriched to provide skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Job redesign as part of the plan to improve the quality of working life has a world-wide movement. Also is concluded that, FW. Taylor’s approach is more of hard HRM while the behavioural approach is more of soft HRM. REFERENCE : REFERENCE C.S Venkata Ratman and B.K Srivastava (1991), Personnel Management and Human Resources, 15th Reprint, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, Page (28-50) www.answer.com www.opening learningworld.com You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.