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Illustration: The Meshing of Words With Images: 

Keep it as simple as possible, yet no simpler. Albert Einstein Illustration: The Meshing of Words With Images X-ray photograph of DNA [Rosalind Franklin, 1952]

Two types of illustrations exist: tables and figures: 

Table 1. Reactor power levels in Chernobyl accident [Wolfson, 1991]. Two types of illustrations exist: tables and figures

Tables can present words as well as numbers: 

Table 2. Sequence of events in the Chernobyl accident [Wolfson, 1991]. April 25 April 25 April 25 April 26 April 26 April 26 Date Time Power Level Event 1:00 a.m. 2:00 p.m. 11:10 p.m. 1:00 a.m. 1:19 a.m. 1:23 a.m. 3200 MW 1600 MW 1600 MW 30 MW 200 MW 2,000,000 MW Operators begin power descent Power descent delayed for 9 hours Emergency core-cooling system disconnected Operators switch off automatic control Power descent resumed Power minimum reached Operators pull rods beyond allowable limits Operators start two additional coolant pumps Operators violate coolant flow limits Power surges by factor of 10,000 in 5 seconds Tables can present words as well as numbers

Slide4: 

When presenting numerical data, you choose between tables and graphs

Line graphs are common in engineering and science: 

Temperature (K) Distance From Burner (mm) Figure 3. Computational and experimental temperatures for laminar diffusion flames [Sandia, 1987]. Line graphs are common in engineering and science

Bar graphs compare wholes: 

Figure 4. Response of T-cells in cosmonauts after short-term and long-term flights [Konstantinova, 1991]. Cells% Flight Duration (Days) 10 20 30 7-10 112–175 211–366 Normal range Bar graphs compare wholes

Gantt charts are a type of bar charts: 

Gantt charts are a type of bar charts

Pie graphs compare parts of a whole: 

Industrial wastes (28%) Medical and research wastes (16%) Power reactor wastes (64%) P o w e r R e a c t o r I n d u s t r i a l M e d i c a l G o v e r n m e n t Government wastes (2%) Figure 5. Volume of low-level nuclear wastes from various sources [League, 1985]. Pie graphs compare parts of a whole

Graphs come in many forms: 

Graphs come in many forms

Slide10: 

When presenting images, you choose between photographs, drawings, and diagrams

Slide11: 

The main advantage of photographs is realism Figure 2. Space Shuttle Challenger, from about 59 seconds to 60 seconds into launch (January 28, 1986). On the right rocket, flame first becomes visible and then impinges on tank. 59 seconds 59.5 seconds 60 seconds

Slide12: 

One advantage of drawings is control of detail Figure 5. Wind tunnel experiment at Virginia Tech for evaluating film-cooling designs for the blades of gas turbine engines [Thole and others, 2000].

Slide13: 

The main advantage of a diagram is the ability to show flow of a variable through a system Figure 8. Schematic of test stand for evaluating components of an air conditioner design.

Scientists and engineers often use illustrations that are too complex for the text: 

The thermal storage system stores heat in a huge, steel- walled tank. Steam from the solar receiver passes through heat exchangers to heat the thermal oil, which is pumped into the tank. The tank then provides energy to run a steam generator to produce electricity. A schematic of this system is shown in Figure 5. Scientists and engineers often use illustrations that are too complex for the text

The precision of the illustrations should reflect the precision of the text: 

The thermal storage system, shown in Figure 6, stores heat in a huge, steel-walled tank. Steam from the solar receiver heats a thermal oil, which is pumped into the tank. The tank then provides energy to run a steam generator to produce electricity. Figure 6. Schematic of thermal storage system for the solar power plant. The precision of the illustrations should reflect the precision of the text

For clarity, you should introduce and explain illustrations in the text: 

Figure 7. Title of figure. Some formats allow you extra sentences to explain unusual details. ..., as shown in Figure 7. For clarity, you should introduce and explain illustrations in the text

Inconsistencies between text and images disrupt fluidity: 

The testing hardware of the rocket shown in Figure 8 has five main components: camera, digitizer, computer, I/O interface, and mechanical interface. Commands are generated by the computer, then passed through the I/O interface to the mechanized interface where the keyboard of the ICU is operated. The display of the ICU is read with a television camera and then digitized. This information is then manipulated by the computer to direct the next command. Inconsistencies between text and images disrupt fluidity

Illustration is the meshing of words with images: 

Our system for testing the launch controls of the rocket consists of four main parts: computer, electro-mechanical interface, camera, and digitizer. In this system (shown in Figure 9), the computer generates test commands to the rocket through the electro-mechanical interface. The test results are read with a television camera, and then digitized. The computer receives the information from the digitizer, and then directs the next test command. Figure 9. System to test launch controls for rocket. Illustration is the meshing of words with images

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