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Furby vs. computer: Furby vs. computer Cheap - buy as many as you like! Computation seamlessly integrated with user activity Attentive Reactive Expensive - only one per person Computation only available in a stationary box Not attentive Not reactive The trouble with computers: The trouble with computers A major motivation behind ubiquitous computing is how computers are isolated from the everyday environment A number of attempts have been made to break this 'isolation' The hope is to make interfaces that are better integrated with the way people already work Slide5: 'Virtual Reality vs. Ubiquitous Computing, in cartoons.' Mark Weiser, www.ubiq.com New user interfaces: New user interfaces But putting computers 'everywhere' is not always possible! Therefore, many researchers experimented with various ways of making the interface between computers and people more seamless Today’s lecture: Today’s lecture Today I will try to give an overview of some recent (~10-15 years) trends in human-computer interaction These include in particular: Augmented reality Tangible interfaces Ambient displays Augmented Reality (AR): Augmented Reality (AR) AR concerns overlapping digital information with the real world By sensing what the user is looking at, the system combines real and virtual objects via projection or see-through displays The Digital Desk (Xerox EuroPARC 1990-93): The Digital Desk (Xerox EuroPARC 1990-93) Seamless integration between physical and digital documents on a real desk (no metaphor!) A camera tracks objects on the desk An overhead projector displays directly on top of the working surface Sensing user activity: Sensing user activity The Digital Desk’s camera + display arrangement is used in many other systems Another way of registering user activity is to have a sensitive surface, e.g. MERL DiamondTouch Sony SmartSkin Augmented surfaces (Sony CSL 2003): Augmented surfaces (Sony CSL 2003) This project demonstrates some innovative ways to mix 'real' and 'virtual' information Users can move information between various devices The Chameleon (Univ. of Toronto, 1993): The Chameleon (Univ. of Toronto, 1993) Used position-aware handheld displays to allow for 3-dimensional interaction The system can put the information where it is needed Total Recall (Viktoria 2002): Total Recall (Viktoria 2002) Combines position-aware displays with a whiteboard capture system Allows in-place viewing of annotations Uses off-the-shelf ultrasonic positioning (Mimio) Ubiquitous Graphics (Viktoria 2005): Ubiquitous Graphics (Viktoria 2005) Hand-held computers act as magic lenses to show detailed information Allows collaboration through wireless connection Augmented Reality Toolkit (ATR + HITLab): Augmented Reality Toolkit (ATR + HITLab) General system for AR applications Virtual objects are matched to graphics in real-time Special graphics mark objects in real space Markers are designed to provide unique ID and orientation Magic Book (ATR + HITLab, 2000) : Magic Book (ATR + HITLab, 2000) A book is augmented with animated 3D graphics Keeps familiar interaction style Several users can collaborate around the real-world object Tangible interfaces: Tangible interfaces Tangible interfaces aim to create computer interfaces that are more natural, by using our natural ability to touch and feel in the real world By providing physical representations of digital data and functions, it is possible to create richer computer interfaces that are better integrated in the world Slide18: Marble answering machine (RCA, ca. 1992): Marble answering machine (RCA, ca. 1992) Each incoming message is represented by a physical marble Place a marble in the indentation to listen to the message Drop the marble back in the hole to recycle If the message is for someone else, put it in their tray Graspable Interfaces (Univ. Toronto, 1995) : Graspable Interfaces (Univ. Toronto, 1995) Tight coupling between physical and digital representation 'Bricks' are used as handles to manipulate virtual objects (e.g. windows) Tangible GeoSpace (MIT Media Lab, 1997): Tangible GeoSpace (MIT Media Lab, 1997) Physical icons represent data and functions Models of buildings represent position on the map Functionality is represented with physical 'tools' (magnifying glass) Luminous Room (MIT Media Lab 1997-98): Luminous Room (MIT Media Lab 1997-98) A framework for tangible AR applications Simulation of holography workbench Urban Planning Introduced the I/O-bulb, a generalization of the camera+display system introduced in Digital Desk IO Brush (MIT Media Lab 2004): IO Brush (MIT Media Lab 2004) ToPoBo (MIT Media Lab 2004): ToPoBo (MIT Media Lab 2004) DataTiles (Sony CSL 2002): DataTiles (Sony CSL 2002) Making it useful: Making it useful The interface of the Xerox STAR personal computer was based on observation of book publishers (c.f. cut and paste!) How can studies of other work practices be translated into computer interfaces? Digital Tape Drawing: Digital Tape Drawing Based on the actual work-practice of tape drawing artists Large-scale display Two-handed input paradigm Physical 'handles' rather than free-form tracking Flock-of-birds magnetic tracking system Tangible interfaces in popular media: Tangible interfaces in popular media The film Minority Report contains visions of future tangible interfaces directly influenced by this research You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.