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Wetlands By: Natalie Tillman


"Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or where shallow water covers the land and where at least one of the following attributes holds: 1) the land predominantly supports aquatic plants at least periodically; 2) undrained hydric soils are the predominant substrate; and 3) at some time during the growing season, the substrate is saturated with water or covered by shallow water." EPA definition at http://www.epa.gov/emap/html/dataI/wetlands/


All wetlands generate dissolved carbon, which increases color, thus lowering light penetration. surface-water flow becomes obstructed due to shallow depth, plants and peat sediment protect shores from wave action, reduce the impacts of floods, absorb pollutants, provide habitat, breeding and feeding for animals and plants, purify water, and are important for recreational activities form nurseries for fish and other freshwater and marine life Wetlands can be found in nearly every county and climatic zone in the United States.


Types of Wetlands Marshes contain plants without strong woody stems and branches (herbaceous plants) either freshwater or saltwater freshwater marshes: 90% of America's wetlands Swamps dominant vegetation is woody plants such as trees and shrubs Freshwater and saltwater swamps Bogs freshwater wetlands found in cold regions Fens similar to bogs higher pH and more nutrients located in regions of the northeast, the northern plains and Canada.


Flora Reed grass Blue flag Black willow Silver maple Sedge Wild celery Cattails Swamp rose


Fauna toads wood ducks muskrat Menhaden flounder sea trout salamanders spot croaker striped bass Woodpeckers hawks wading birds many song- birds Frogs peregrine falcon otter black bear raccoon deer Geese

Extra Details: 

Extra Details more than half of America's original wetlands have been destroyed More than one-third of the United States' threatened and endangered species live only in wetlands

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