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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Naval Science 113 History of U.S. Sea Power II: Naval Science 113 History of U.S. Sea Power II World War II to PresentNaval Science 112 Grades: Naval Science 112 GradesNaval Science 113 Review: Naval Science 113 Review Prelude to World War II http://www.angelfire.com/super2/panama/in_harms_way.htmlPrelude to World War II Fascism: Prelude to World War II Fascism General traits: Dictatorial government Rejection of individualism Rejection of representative government Centralized control of private enterprise Idealization of war Disallowance of the class struggle (anti-communist) Unity and indivisibility of the nation Military build-up Territorial expansion Fascism initiated by Mussolini in Italy Corrupted Fasci movement of patriotic WW I veterans Adopted fascis - ancient Roman symbol of authorityPrelude to World War II Fascism in Europe: Prelude to World War II Fascism in Europe Benito Mussolini - “Il Duce” : Dictator - 1922 Adolf Hitler - “Fuhrer”: Chancellor of Germany - 1933 Nazi Third Reich replaces Weimar Republic Promise of German economic recovery Beginnings of the Holocaust German rearmament begins Generalissimo Francisco Franco : Dictator - 1939 Supported by fascists in Spanish Civil War – 1936-1939Prelude to World War II Prospective Axis – to 1936: Prelude to World War II Prospective Axis – to 1936 Great Depression - 1929 Japan Occupation of Manchuria, expansion into China - 1931 Withdrew from League of Nations - 1933 Renounced Washington Naval Treaties Germany Withdrew from League of Nations - 1933 Versailles rejected, rearmament began - 1935 Occupied Rhineland - 1936 Italy Invaded Ethiopia - 1935 Rome-Berlin Axis - 1936 Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler http://www.phatnav.com/wiki/index.php?title=World_War_IIPrelude to World War II U.S. Situation – to 1937: Prelude to World War II U.S. Situation – to 1937 Remained isolationist/neutral No fortification of Guam and Philippines after 1936 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy Elected President 1932 Vinson-Trammel Act - 1934 Authorized 70 ships, 730 aircraft Neutrality Acts (1935-1937) Avoid unwanted intervention in European War 1935: no munitions to belligerents 1936 Amendment: no loans to belligerents 1937: “cash & carry” sale of goods (no guns) to belligerents “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself” - 1932Prelude to World War II Pacific Situation – 1937: Prelude to World War II Pacific Situation – 1937 Japan Full-scale, undeclared war against China - July 1937 USS Panay Incident - December 1937 U.S. gunboat on Yangtze River sunk by Japanese air force Illustrated vulnerability of ships to aircraft Japanese apology and cash indemnity to buy time U.S. Response Violated “Open Door” policy FDR’s “quarantine” speech called for “positive endeavors to preserve peace” No direct action Indirect response - 1938 Naval Expansion Act http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/st/~pbugler/prx05a.GIF USS Panay on patrol on the Yangtze River Prelude to World War II Beginnings of War in Europe – 1938-39: Prelude to World War II Beginnings of War in Europe – 1938-39 German annexation of Austria - March 1938 Munich Crisis - September 1938 Czechoslovakia’s German-speaking Sudetenland Appeasement of Hitler by Western leaders British Prime Minister Chamberlain: “Peace in our time” German occupation of Czechoslovakia - March 1939 Italian occupation of Albania - April 1939 Britain and France guaranteed protection of Poland Also Holland and Belgium Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact - August 1939 Non-aggression treaty between Soviet Union and GermanyPrelude to World War II Early War in Europe – 1939: Prelude to World War II Early War in Europe – 1939 Germany invaded Poland: Blitzkrieg – 1 September 1939 Tanks and Stuka dive bombers Soviet occupation of eastern Poland England and France declared war on Germany – 3 September 1939 Britain moved to blockade Germany Germany began commerce raiding U-boats and surface raiders Britain adopted convoy strategy at outset Recognized importance of maintaining lines of communication with U.S. http://pegc.no-ip.info/images/germans_take_warsaw.jpgPrelude to World War II U.S. Preparations for War – 1939: Prelude to World War II U.S. Preparations for War – 1939 “Neutrality” patrols Report and track belligerents approaching the U.S. Fourth Neutrality Act (1939) Shift from isolationism British Isles declared danger zone Arms embargo lifted, belligerents had to pay cash and transport materials themselves U.S. ships forbidden to enter danger zones Declaration of Panama Established a 300-mile neutrality zone around the Americas Compromised by Britain’s long-range blockade of Germany and Germany’s counter blockade of Allied coast Prelude to World War II Evaluation of U.S. Navy in 1939: Prelude to World War II Evaluation of U.S. Navy in 1939 General Board’s Evaluation: “Not now fully prepared” Capital Ships - Sufficient for offensive in Atlantic, defensive in Pacific Destroyers - Sufficient for screening, insufficient for convoys and ASW Cruisers - Barely Sufficient Submarines - 40% below war strength Aircraft Shortage of long-range patrol bombers Lack of modern carrier aircraft Manpower - 78% enlisted manning Landing craft - Critical shortage Aircraft Carriers - Insufficient Forward Bases - Critical deficiencies Marine Corps - One third of desired strengthPrelude to World War II Early War in Europe – 1940: Prelude to World War II Early War in Europe – 1940 Germany invaded Denmark and Norway - April 1940 Keep Britain from tightening blockade Germans launch attack of Netherlands, Belgium, and France - May 1940 Outflanked the Maginot line France falls June 1940 Britain withdrew troops from Europe Dunkirk - May, June 1940 Royal Navy evacuated 337,000 Allied soldiers from France Chamberlain resigned, Churchill new Prime Minister British destroyed Vichy French fleet at Oran - July 1940Prelude to World War II Early War in Europe – 1940-41: Prelude to World War II Early War in Europe – 1940-41 Battle of Britain - Summer 1940 Operation Sea Lion - planned German invasion of England Soviet annexation of Baltic States - June 1940 Soviet invasion of Finland - November 1940 German invasion of Soviet Union - June 1941 Operation Barbarossa Battle of Britain 10 July 1940 - Robert Taylor Panzer drive in Operation Barbarossa Prelude to World War II U.S. Strategic Planning: Prelude to World War II U.S. Strategic Planning U.S. Retreat toward Hemispheric Defense Caribbean and Panama have priority Pacific fleet moved to Pearl Harbor as a deterrent to Japan Emphasis shifted from Pacific to Atlantic Germany threat to U.S., not possessions Defensive strategy in Pacific As opposed to War Plan ORANGE Sacrificing Philippines and Guam RAINBOW war plans Loss of Philippines early Fall back to Aleutians, Hawaii Reinforce battle fleet in Hawaii Move west across Pacific, retaking Philippines and threaten Japanese home islandsPrelude to World War II U.S. War Plans Revised: Prelude to World War II U.S. War Plans Revised Plan Red = Britain Plan Black = Germany Plan Orange = Japan Originated 1911, revised 1922, 1928, 1933 “Through ticket to Manila” Replaced by Rainbow Plans in 1940 RAINBOW Plans Rainbow 1, 4 = Hemispheric Defense Rainbow 2, 3 = Plan Orange with Allies Rainbow 5 = Two-front war: US & GB vs. GE & JA Adapted from “Plan Dog” – CNO ADM Stark Most likely Germany first Historical Atlas p.134Prelude to World War II U.S. “Neutrality” – 1940-41: Prelude to World War II U.S. “Neutrality” – 1940-41 U.S. remains isolationist and “neutral” FDR’s reelection campaign opposed U.S. intervention in 1940 Destroyers for bases deal with Britain - September 1940 ABC-1 Staff Agreement - March 1941 U.S. began to make secret war plans with Great Britain “Germany First” strategy developed Lend-Lease Act - March 1941 President can transfer munitions without payment Initially to Britain, later also to Russia U.S. “Neutrality Patrols” protect shipping from U-boats American operations from Greenland and Iceland Escort of convoys from U.S. to IcelandPrelude to World War II Pacific Situation – 1941: Prelude to World War II Pacific Situation – 1941 Events leading to war in the Pacific Sep 1940 13 Apr 1940 Jun 1941 26 Jul 1941 Oct 1941 20 Nov 1941 26 Nov 1941 6 Dec 1941 7 Dec 1941 Japan formally joined the Axis – Tripartite Pact Japan signed a 5-year treaty of neutrality with Russia French turned over bases in Indochina to Japan U.S. froze Japanese assets and cut off flow of oil U.S. to fortify and defend the Philippines (top priority) Tojo takes control of the Japanese government Japanese envoy presented “last proposals” to Washington U.S. responded to Japan’s proposals Demanded Japan’s withdrawal from China and Indochina Ensure the integrity of the Chinese Nationalist government Enter a non-aggression pact with the U.S. Roosevelt appealed to Emperor Hirohito to withdraw from Indochina Japan’s reply received at 0755 in Pearl HarborKey Themes Prelude to World War II : Key Themes Prelude to World War II Navy as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy Interaction between Congress and the Navy Interservice relations Technology Leadership Strategy and tactics Naval Doctrine“Il Duce”: “Il Duce” Benito MussoliniAdolf Hitler: Adolf Hitler “Fuhrer”FranklinDelanoRoosevelt: Franklin Delano Roosevelt President of the United States World War II “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself” - 1932JosefStalin: Josef Stalin Secretary General of the Communist Party Union of Soviet Socialist Republics World War IIWinstonChurchill: Winston Churchill Prime Minister of Great Britain World War II “we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender” - June 4, 1940 “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat” May 10, 1940Prelude to World War II Beginnings of War in Europe: Prelude to World War II Beginnings of War in Europe German annexation of Austria - March 1938 Munich Crisis - September 1938 Czechoslovakia’s German-speaking Sudetenland Appeasement of Hitler by Western leaders British Prime Minister Chamberlain: “Peace in our time” German occupation of Czechoslovakia - March 1939 Italian occupation of Albania - April 1939 Britain and France guaranteed protection of Poland Also Holland and Belgium Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact - August 1939 Non-aggression treaty between Soviet Union and Germany You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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