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Sources of pollutants: : Sources of pollutants: ?The two main sources of pollutants in urban areas are: ?ransportation (predominantly automobiles). Motor vehicles produce high levels of carbon monoxides (CO) and are a major source of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Fuel combustion in stationary sources, including residential, commercial, and industrial heating and cooling and coal-burning power plants.Fuel combustion in stationary sources is the dominant source of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Pollutants and damage : Pollutants and damage ?Carbon dioxide(CO2) -s one of the major pollutants in the atmosphere. CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space. This produces the so-called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night. Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere reinforces this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth's surface. Currently carbon dioxide is responsible for 57% of the global warming trend. Nitrogen oxides contribute most of the atmospheric contaminants. Slide 6: ?Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)-Spray cans, discarded or leaking refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and the burning plastic foam products release the CFCs into the atmosphere. Depending on the type, CFCs stay in the atmosphere from 22 to 111 years. Chlorofluorocarbons, also known as Freons, are greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Slide 7: ?Smog- a contraction of the words smoke and fog, has been caused throughout recorded history by water condensing on smoke particles, usually from burning coal. With the introduction of petroleum to replace coal economies in countries, photochemical smog has become predominant in many cities, which are located in sunny, warm, and dry climates with many motor vehicles. One of the products of photochemical reactions is ozone. Ozone causes eye irritation, impaired lung function, and damage to trees and crops. Global Warming : Global Warming ?For over the past 200 years, the anthropologic activities caused the concentrations of heat-trapping "greenhouse gases" to increase significantly in our atmosphere.These gases prevent heat from escaping to space, somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse. Slide 9: ?Greenhouse gases are necessary to life as we know it, because they keep the planet's surface warmer than it otherwise would be. But, as the concentrations of these gases continue to increase in the atmosphere, the Earth's temperature is climbing above past levels. Other aspects of the climate are also changing such as rainfall patterns, snow and ice cover, and sea level. That increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases will change the planet's climate. Water Pollution : Water Pollution ?Definition:Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and plants which live in these water bodies. Sources of pollution : Sources of pollution ? Municipal water pollution consists of waste water from homes and commercial establishments. ? Industrial-The impact of industrial discharges depends not only on their collective characteristics, such as biochemical oxygen demand and the amount of suspended solids, but also on their content of specific inorganic and organic substances. Slide 12: ? Agriculture, including commercial livestock and poultry farming, is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater.These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers. Pollutants and damage : Pollutants and damage ?Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently block up our waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters. This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability or fish and other invertebrates that reside in water. Slide 14: ?Petroleum- often pollutes waterbodies in the form of oil, resulting from oil spills. Besides the supertankers, off-shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution. One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported. Slide 15: ?radioactive substances-Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants, and from the industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive materials. Specific forms of waste are uranium(U) and thorium(Th) mining and refining. Slide 16: ?Heat - Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms. These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occurs. Soil Pollution : Soil Pollution ?Definition-Soil pollution is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have harmful effects on plant growth and animal health. Sources of pollution : Sources of pollution ?Seepage from a landfill ?Discharge of industrial waste into the soil ?Percolation of contaminated water into the soil ?Rupture of underground storage tanks ?Excess application of pesticides , herbicides or fertilizer ?Solid waste seepage Pollutants : Pollutants ?Petroleum hydrocarbons ?Heavy metals ?Pesticides Slide 20: ?Heavy metals -Pollution of agricultural soils by heavy metals may lead to reduced yields and elevated levels of these elements in agricultural products, and thus to their introduction into the food chain. -Heavy metal deposits on grassland soils remain predominantly in the top few centimetres and are directly ingested with soil by grazing animals. -Heavy metals are toxic and inhibit the soil's microorganic activity. Their concentration in the soil can remain for decades or even centuries. Slide 21: ?Pesticides -Pesticides pollute the soil directly by affecting the organisms that live in it. Soil, however, can act as a spreader for the pollution of surface water and groundwater. Organic pollutants enter the soil via atmospheric deposition, direct spreading onto land, contamination by wastewater and waste disposal. Slide 22: ?The use of pesticides may lead to: -destruction of the soil's micro-flora and fauna, leading to both physical and chemical deterioration;-severe yield reduction in crops; and dissolving of toxic chemicals into groundwater and potentially threatening drinking water resources. Slide 23: Vratza’s pollution The Plakalnitza Mine : The Plakalnitza Mine It was situated above the village of Zgorigrad - only about 4 km. away from Vratza. The mine was famous for its rich history and the production of copper,lead and zinc ore .That fact ensured it a significant place in the bulgarian metal industry. Slide 25: Mine’s owners ,however, were not interested in preserving the nature around their property. So they decided to facilitate themselves and used the nearby running river Leva as a sewer. As a result by the end of 20th century river Leva had been running down in metalic grey color, making existing of water life impossible. The Plakalniza’s production affected also the mountain itself,causing erosian,some landslides and possible future appearance of gaps in the mountain’s body. Himko : Himko In 1967,in Vratza, was opened a new chemical works “Himko” , which produced fertilizers. Himko provided more places of work and gave lots of people better economical status. According to the Ecology the new chemical works was a complete disaster. The main waste products of its production were ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. Their release into the atmosphere strongly reflected on Vratza’s citizens. Slide 27: Himko had also a negative influence over the environment. High levels of ammonia(NH3) in the atmosphere ,related to the rivers by the water circle, increased significantly the indexes of nitrogen in the water. Slide 28: Cars-main sources of pollution Factories : Factories Mine pollution : Mine pollution Breathless : Breathless Soil pollution : Soil pollution Useless : Useless Havina Georgieva 10AJoan Ekzarh Language School : Havina Georgieva 10AJoan Ekzarh Language School Created by: You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.