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BASIC TYPES OF FACTS CONTROLLERS. BENEFITS OF UTILISING FACTS DEVICES. APPLICATION OF FACTS CONTROLLERS. CONCLUSION.Slide 3: INTRODUCTION N.G. Hingorani, in 1988, first defined the concepts of Flexible AC Transmission Systems ( FACTS). The basic human need for safe, efficient and affordable “LIGHT” became the driving force which led to the development of today’s continent spanning “ Electric Energy” or “ Power System ”. This reactive power has been recognized as a significant factor in the design and operation of ac system s for a long time. In an Ideal ac power system the voltage and frequency at every supply point would be constant and free from harmonics and the power factor would be unity irrespective of consumers load. But when we go for a Non-Ideal ac power system which is due to varying loads, the terminal voltage tends to be varying and it requires the practice of generating “reactive power” as close as possible to load, which requires it rather than supplying it from a remote power station.Slide 4: WHAT IS FACTS ? Flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) technology is a collection of power electronics controllers which can be applied individually or in coordination with others to control one or more interrelated system parameters , such as voltage, current , series Impedance, shunt impedance etc., that govern the operation of transmission systems. FACTS involve conversion and/or switching power electronics in the range of few tens to a few hundred megawatts. I n short we can say FACTS –a new technology based on power electronics offering an opportunity to enhance the controllability, stability and power transfer capability of ac transmission system. Considering the opportunities in power electronics through reduction in costs, size and losses we are in early stage of power electronic revolution and there is a bright future ahead for those who are involved.Slide 5: FOR WHAT PURPOSE FACTS ARE USED? FACTS devices are used for the dynamic control of voltage, impedance and phase angle of high voltage ac lines. The FACTS controllers enable the routing of power in the steady state in any desired manner independent of the impedance various other paths. It has also other potential advantages such as: Ability to damp oscillations Improve system stability and enhances power transfer capacity of transmission network. Thus , FACTS devices provide strategic benefits for improved transmission system management through better utilization of existing transmission assets ;. The main objectives of FACTS is To increase the power transfer capability of transmission systems. To keep power flow over designated routes.Slide 6: WHAT IS FACTS TECHNOLOGY? FACTS technology opens up new opportunities for controlling power and enhancing the usable capacity of present as well as new and upgrade lines. The FACTS technology is not a single high power controller but rather a collection of controllers which can be applied individually or in coordination with others to control the inter-related parameters that govern the operation of transmission systems including series impedance, shunt impedance, current, voltage, power, phase angle etc . Just as transistor is a basic element for a whole variety of microelectronic chips and circuits , the thyristor or high power transistor is the basic element for a variety of high power electronic controllersSlide 7: BASIC TYPES OF FACTS CONTROLLERS: Series controllers. Shunt controllers. Combined series-series controllers. Combined shunt-series controllers.Slide 8: Series controllers: The series controllers could be variable impedance, such as capacitor, reactor, etc., power electronics based variable source of main frequency, sub synchronous and harmonic frequencies to serve the desired need . In principle, all series controllers inject voltage in series with the line . As long as the voltage is in phase quadrature with the line current, the series controller only supplies or consumes variable reactive power. Any other phase relationship will involve handling of real power as well .Slide 9: Static Synchronous Series capacitor TYPES: Thyristor-Controlled Series capacitor Thyristor-Switched Series capacitorSlide 10: Shunt controllers: The shunt controllers may be variable impedance, variable source, or a combination of these. In principle, all shunt controllers inject current into the system at the point of connection. As long as the injected current is in phase quadrature with the line voltage, the shunt controller only supplies or consumes variable reactive power.STATCOM-STATIC COMPENSATOR:: TYPES OF SHUNT CONTROLLERS: STATCOM - STAT IC COM PENSATOR : Same as SVC but its capacitive or inductive o/p current can be controlled independent of system voltage. It can be based on Voltage sourced or Current sourced Converter. When inverter fundamental o/p voltage is higher than the system line voltage, then STATCON acts as a capacitor and reactive VARS are generated. Otherwise, It acts as inductor and absorbs reactive VARS from the system. Can be designed to be an Active Filter to absorb System harmonics.PARALLEL COMPENATION - STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR(SVC): PARALLEL COMPENATION - STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR(SVC) Consists of fixed capacitor banks in parallel with reactor bank. BENEFITS Increased Power Transfer Capability. Improved Grid Voltage Control. Improved Power Factor. OTHER APPLICTIONS Power Oscillation Damping. Power Quality (Flicker Mitigation, Voltage Balancing).Slide 13: Combined series-series controller: It is a combination of separate series controllers, which are controlled in a coordinated manner, in a multiline transmission system. Or It could be a unified controller, in which series controllers provide independent series reactive compensation for each line but also transfer real power among the lines via the power link. E.g : Interline power flow controller (IPFC)Slide 14: Combined series-shunt controllers: It is a combination of separate shunt and series controllers, which are controlled in a coordinated manner. In principle, combined shunt and series controllers inject current into the system with the shunt part of the controller and voltage in series in the line with the series part of the controller. However, when the shunt and series controllers are unified, there can be a real power exchange between the series and shunt controllers via the power link. E.g : unified power flow controller (UPFC)Slide 15: BENEFITS OF UTILISING FACTS DEVICES : Control of power flow in transmission corridors by controlling line impedance, angle and voltage. Optimum power flow for certain objectives. Increase the loading capability of lines to their thermal capabilities, including and short term and seasonal. Increase the system security through raising the transient limit, limiting short circuit currents and over loads, utilization of lowest cost generation. Provide greater flexibility in sitting new generation. Upgrade of lines. Reduce loop flows .Slide 16: APPLICATIONS OF FACTS CONTROLLERS: Power flow control. Voltage control. Reactive power compensation. Stability improvement. Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation storages. Power conducting. Power quality improvement. Increase of transmission capability.Slide 17: CONCLUSION: FACTS technology is a collection of power electronics controllers which can be applied individually or in co-ordination with others to control one or more inter- related system parameters that govern operation of transmission systems such as voltage, current, power etc. The advent high power self commutating device, high speed computing elements and advanced control concepts have made the flexible control of ac network a practical reality.Slide 18: Queries ?.... You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.