ECOLOGY

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Presentation Transcript

ECOLOGY: 

ECOLOGY Population Concept Ecosystem Concept Example of ecosystem Cycling and Energy flow Inter-relationship Succession

Population Concept: 

Population Concept Factor affecting population growth Growth curve Survivorshio curves Age pyramids

Factors affect population: 

Factors affect population Birth rate (natality) Death rate (mortality) Time to reach sexual maturity Number of individual now Life span Migration Competition Predation Physical factor

Growth Curve: 

Growth Curve S-shaped curve J-shaped curve

S-shaped Curve: 

S-shaped Curve Lag Log Stationary

J- shaped Curve (algae): 

J- shaped Curve (algae) Nutrient added Nutrient Used up

Survivorship Curve: 

Survivorship Curve Fish, crab Most animal, plant Man, large animal

Age pyramids: 

Age pyramids

Growth of human population: 

Growth of human population Medical technology Agricultural technology Less natural disaster Insufficient birth control

Control of population: 

Control of population Legistration Education Medical method Physical Barrier Contraceptive pill operation

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Ecology: Populations — Growth, range, density, hyperlinks http://gened.emc.maricopa.edu/Bio/BIO181/BIOBK/BioBookpopecol.html

Ecosystem Concept: 

Ecosystem Concept Habitat Population Community Ecosystem Niche Biome Biosphere

Habitat: 

Habitat

Population: 

Population

Community: 

Community

Ecosystem: 

Ecosystem

Other: 

Other Niche = Role of that organism Each organism has specific niche. No two organisms have same niche. Biome = abiotic + biotic factors + Climate Biosphere = all in the earth

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Biomes — Menus http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/index.html Biomes: World I — 12 biomes outlined http://pc65.frontier.osrhe.edu/hs/science/biome1.htm   Biomes: World II — 11 biomes hyperlinked http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/main.html

Example Rocky shore: 

Example Rocky shore

Food chain: 

Food chain Producer 1st trophic Primary consumer 2nd trophic Secondary consumer 3rd trophic Tertiary consumer 4th trophic

Food Web: 

Food Web Food Chain

Number pyramids: 

Number pyramids Tree grass

Energy flow: 

Energy flow Sun Producer (green plant) 1st consumer (herbivores) 2nd consumer 3rd consumer Decomposers

Most energy lost: 

Most energy lost

Water cycle: 

Water cycle

Carbon cycle: 

Carbon cycle

Nitrogen cycle: 

Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen fixing: 

Nitrogen fixing

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Cycles, Chains, Webs Biogeochemical Cycles — Carbon, nitrogen, water http://pc65.frontier.osrhe.edu/hs/science/bcycles.htm   Food Chains, Webs, Cycles http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/102/ecosystem.html#Energyflowthroughtheecosystem3   Food Pyramids http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/9o.html  

Interdependence of organisms: 

Interdependence of organisms Predation Competition Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism

Predation: 

Predation number Time prey predator

Competition: 

Competition number Time Competitor A Competitor B

Commensalism : 

Commensalism number Time Host Commensal

Mutualism : 

Mutualism number Time symbionts Symbionts

Parasitism : 

Parasitism number Time Host Parasite

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Competitive exclusion principle — Competition between species (Gauss) http://www.gypsymoth.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/PopEcol/lec11/inter.html   Preditor/Prey: Didinium, Paramecium http://www.hi.is/pub/haxi/ritgerdir/pop-ec.htm Symbiosis I — types and discussion http://www.ms-starship.com/sciencenew/symbiosis.htm   Symbioses II — types and discussion http://www.baylorhealth.com/proceedings/13_3/13_3_dimijian.htm

Succession: 

Succession Ecological succession is process by which communities in the ecosystem change with time. For forest succession: Lichen community Algae and mosses Herbs Shrubs Trees

Lichen community: 

Lichen community

Algae and mosses: 

Algae and mosses

Herb community: 

Herb community

Shrubs community: 

Shrubs community

Tree (Climax): 

Tree (Climax)

Fire succession: 

Fire succession

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Succession: Ecological I — Well done! Info and illustrations http://library.thinkquest.org/17456/successionall.html   Succession: Ecological II — Forest Cycle http://www.connix.com/~harry/forest.htm