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ECOLOGY Population Concept Ecosystem Concept Example of ecosystem Cycling and Energy flow Inter-relationship Succession

Population Concept: 

Population Concept Factor affecting population growth Growth curve Survivorshio curves Age pyramids

Factors affect population: 

Factors affect population Birth rate (natality) Death rate (mortality) Time to reach sexual maturity Number of individual now Life span Migration Competition Predation Physical factor

Growth Curve: 

Growth Curve S-shaped curve J-shaped curve

S-shaped Curve: 

S-shaped Curve Lag Log Stationary

J- shaped Curve (algae): 

J- shaped Curve (algae) Nutrient added Nutrient Used up

Survivorship Curve: 

Survivorship Curve Fish, crab Most animal, plant Man, large animal

Age pyramids: 

Age pyramids

Growth of human population: 

Growth of human population Medical technology Agricultural technology Less natural disaster Insufficient birth control

Control of population: 

Control of population Legistration Education Medical method Physical Barrier Contraceptive pill operation

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Ecology: Populations — Growth, range, density, hyperlinks

Ecosystem Concept: 

Ecosystem Concept Habitat Population Community Ecosystem Niche Biome Biosphere










Other Niche = Role of that organism Each organism has specific niche. No two organisms have same niche. Biome = abiotic + biotic factors + Climate Biosphere = all in the earth

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Biomes — Menus Biomes: World I — 12 biomes outlined   Biomes: World II — 11 biomes hyperlinked

Example Rocky shore: 

Example Rocky shore

Food chain: 

Food chain Producer 1st trophic Primary consumer 2nd trophic Secondary consumer 3rd trophic Tertiary consumer 4th trophic

Food Web: 

Food Web Food Chain

Number pyramids: 

Number pyramids Tree grass

Energy flow: 

Energy flow Sun Producer (green plant) 1st consumer (herbivores) 2nd consumer 3rd consumer Decomposers

Most energy lost: 

Most energy lost

Water cycle: 

Water cycle

Carbon cycle: 

Carbon cycle

Nitrogen cycle: 

Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen fixing: 

Nitrogen fixing

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Cycles, Chains, Webs Biogeochemical Cycles — Carbon, nitrogen, water   Food Chains, Webs, Cycles   Food Pyramids  

Interdependence of organisms: 

Interdependence of organisms Predation Competition Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism


Predation number Time prey predator


Competition number Time Competitor A Competitor B

Commensalism : 

Commensalism number Time Host Commensal

Mutualism : 

Mutualism number Time symbionts Symbionts

Parasitism : 

Parasitism number Time Host Parasite

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Competitive exclusion principle — Competition between species (Gauss)   Preditor/Prey: Didinium, Paramecium Symbiosis I — types and discussion   Symbioses II — types and discussion


Succession Ecological succession is process by which communities in the ecosystem change with time. For forest succession: Lichen community Algae and mosses Herbs Shrubs Trees

Lichen community: 

Lichen community

Algae and mosses: 

Algae and mosses

Herb community: 

Herb community

Shrubs community: 

Shrubs community

Tree (Climax): 

Tree (Climax)

Fire succession: 

Fire succession

Related Web site: 

Related Web site Succession: Ecological I — Well done! Info and illustrations   Succession: Ecological II — Forest Cycle

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