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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Energy Professor Stephen Lawrence Leeds School of Business University of Colorado at BoulderAgenda: Agenda Overview of Nuclear Energy Nuclear Physics Nuclear Fuel Nuclear Power Plants Radiation Nuclear Waste Nuclear Safety Nuclear Power and the Environment Nuclear Power Economics Nuclear Power – Pro & Con Future of Nuclear Power Overview of Nuclear Power: Overview of Nuclear PowerNuclear energy consumption by area : Nuclear energy consumption by area Slide5: http://www.nei.orgSlide6: http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlWorld Nuclear Power Plants: World Nuclear Power Plants http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlElectric Power Generation: Electric Power Generation http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlElectric Consumption Profile: Electric Consumption Profile http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlUS Nuclear Generation Trends: US Nuclear Generation Trends http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_generation/gensum.htmlNuclear Physics: Nuclear PhysicsNuclear Binding Energy: Nuclear Binding Energy http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/n/nuclearenergy.htmNuclear Binding Energy 2: Nuclear Binding Energy 2 http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/n/nuclearenergy.htm Maximum Stability (Iron)Nuclear Fission: Nuclear Fission http://users.aber.ac.uk/jrp3/nuclear_power.htmNuclear Chain Reaction: Nuclear Chain Reaction http://www.btinternet.com/~j.doyle/SR/Emc2/Fission.htmNuclear Fuel: Nuclear FuelUranium: Uranium http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fuel_cycleCreating Uranium Fuel: Creating Uranium Fuel 50,000 tonnes of ore from mine 200 tonnes of uranium oxide concentrate (U3O8) Milling process at mine 25 tonnes of enriched uranium oxide uranium oxide is converted into a gas, uranium hexafluoride (UF6), Every tonne of uranium hexafluoride separated into about 130 kg of enriched UF6 (about 3.5% U-235) and 870 kg of 'depleted' UF6 (mostly U-238). The enriched UF6 is finally converted into uranium dioxide (UO2) powder Pressed into fuel pellets which are encased in zirconium alloy tubes to form fuel rods. Uranium Mined and Refined: Uranium Mined and RefinedUranium Enrichment : Uranium Enrichment Nuclear Fuel Pellet: Nuclear Fuel PelletPellets Encased in Ceramic: Pellets Encased in CeramicPellets Inserted into Rods: Pellets Inserted into RodsSources of Uranium: Sources of Uranium http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlWorld Uranium Production: World Uranium Production http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlNuclear Power Plants: Nuclear Power PlantsNuclear Power Plants: Nuclear Power Plants Work best at constant power Excellent for baseload power Power output range of 40 to 2000 MW Current designs are 600 to1200 MW 441 licensed plants operating in 31 countries Produce about 17% of global electrical energyNuclear Power Plant: Nuclear Power PlantNuclear PP Cooling Tower: Nuclear PP Cooling Tower http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm/printableCore of Nuclear Reactor: Core of Nuclear Reactor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_reactorsNuclear PP Control Room: Nuclear PP Control Room http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm/printableIdea of a Nuclear Power Plant: Idea of a Nuclear Power Plant Spinning turbine blades and generator Boiling water SteamNuclear Heat : Nuclear Heat Controlling Chain Reaction : Controlling Chain Reaction Control rods Fuel Assemblies Withdraw control rods, reaction increases Insert control rods, reaction decreasesBoiling Water Reactor : Boiling Water Reactor Boiling Water Reactor (BWR): Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Reactor core creates heat Steam-water mixture is produced when very pure water (reactor coolant) moves upward through the core absorbing heat The steam-water mixture leaves the top of the core and enters the two stages of moisture separation where water droplets are removed before the steam is allowed to enter the steam line Steam line directs the steam to the main turbine causing it to turn the turbine generator, which produces electricity.Pressurized Water Reactor : Pressurized Water Reactor Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR): Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor core generates heat Pressurized-water in the primary coolant loop carries the heat to the steam generator Inside the steam generator heat from the primary coolant loop vaporizes the water in a secondary loop producing steam The steam line directs the steam to the main turbine causing it to turn the turbine generator, which produces electricityReactor Safety Design: Reactor Safety Design Containment Vessel 1.5-inch thick steel Shield Building Wall 3 foot thick reinforced concrete Dry Well Wall 5 foot thick reinforced concrete Bio Shield 4 foot thick leaded concrete with 1.5-inch thick steel lining inside and out Reactor Vessel 4 to 8 inches thick steel Reactor Fuel Weir Wall 1.5 foot thick concreteTour of a Nuclear Power Plant: Tour of a Nuclear Power PlantSlide42: Source: Nuclear Engineering International handbook 1999, but including Pickering A in Canada. http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlAdvanced Research Designs: Advanced Research Designs Generation IV Reactors Gas cooled fast reactor Lead cooled fast reactor Molten salt reactor Sodium-cooled fast reactor Supercritical water reactor Very high temperature reactor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_reactorSSTAR Design: SSTAR Design SSTAR – Small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor Fast breeder reactor Tamper resistant, passively safe, self-contained fuel source (U238) 30 year life Produce constant power of 10-100 MW 15m high × 3 m wide; 500 tonnes Prototype expected by 2015 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SSTARSSTAR Schematic: SSTAR Schematic http://www.llnl.gov/str/JulAug04/gifs/Smith1.jpgRadiation: RadiationTypes of Radiation: Types of Radiation http://www.uic.com.au/wast.htmTypes of Radiation: Types of Radiation Alpha radiation Cannot penetrate the skin Blocked out by a sheet of paper Dangerous in the lung Beta radiation Can penetrate into the body Can be blocked out by a sheet of aluminum foil Gamma radiation Can go right through the body Requires several inches of lead or concrete, or a yard or so of water, to block it. Neutron radiation Normally found only inside a nuclear reactor http://www.uic.com.au/wast.htmMeasuring Radioactivity: Measuring Radioactivity Half-Life The time for a radioactive source to lose 50% of its radioactivity For each half-life time period, radioactivity drops by 50% 1/2; 1/4; 1/8; 1/16; 1/32; 1/64; 1/128; 1/256; … A half-life of 1 year means that radioactivity drops to <1% of its original intensity in seven years Intensity vs. half-life Intense radiation has a short half life, so decays more rapidlyHalf-Life Graph: Half-Life GraphNuclear Waste: Nuclear WasteHandling Nuclear Waste: Handling Nuclear Waste Waste Reprocessing Recondition for further use as fuel Waste Disposal Temporary storage Permanent disposal (usually burial)Waste Disposal Funding: Waste Disposal Funding Funded by power customers 0.1 cent per kWh About $18 billion collected to date About $6 billion has been spent Yucca Mountain, elsewhere http://www.uic.com.au/wast.htmNuclear Fuel Cycle: Nuclear Fuel Cycle http://eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/intro.htmlDecay of Nuclear PP Waste: Decay of Nuclear PP Waste http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlNuclear Waste Reprocessing: Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Separates usable elements (uranium, plutonium) from spent nuclear reactor fuels Usable elements are then reused in a nuclear reactor Other waste products (e.g., radioactive isotopes) must be disposed of Nuclear Waste Disposal: Nuclear Waste Disposal Cooled in a spent fuel pool 10 to 20 years Onsite temporary dry storage Until permanent site becomes available Central permanent buried disposalSpent Fuel Cooling Pool: Spent Fuel Cooling Pool http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlFuel Rod Storage: Fuel Rod Storage http://library.thinkquest.org/17940/texts/nuclear_waste_storage/nuclear_waste_storage.htmlDry Storage Cask: Dry Storage Cask http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlSlide61: http://library.thinkquest.org/17940/texts/nuclear_waste_storage/nuclear_waste_storage.htmlDry Storage On Site: Dry Storage On SiteDry Cask Construction: Dry Cask Construction http://www.nei.org/http://www.nei.org/index.asp?catnum=2&catid=84Dry Cask Durability: Dry Cask Durability http://www.nei.org/http://www.nei.org/index.asp?catnum=2&catid=84Waste Burial: Waste Burial Immobilize waste in an insoluble matrix E.g. borosilicate glass, Synroc (or leave them as uranium oxide fuel pellets - a ceramic) Seal inside a corrosion-resistant container Usualy stainless steel Locate deep underground in stable rock Site the repository in a remote location. Most radioactivity decays within 1,000 years Remaining radioactivity similar to that of the naturally-occurring uranium ore, though more concentrated http://www.uic.com.au/wast.htmYucca Mountain Burial Site: Yucca Mountain Burial Site http://www.cnn.com/EARTH/9803/27/nuclear.waste.ap/Yucca Mountain, NV: Yucca Mountain, NV http://www.sandia.gov/tp/SAFE_RAM/WHEN.HTMYucca Mountain Cross Section: Yucca Mountain Cross Section http://www.nrc.gov/waste/hlw-disposal/design.htmlEntrance to Yucca Mountain: Entrance to Yucca Mountain http://www.wnfm.com/New%20files/Yucca%20Mountain%20Pictures.htmInterior of Yucca Mountain: Interior of Yucca Mountain http://library.thinkquest.org/17940/texts/nuclear_waste_storage/nuclear_waste_storage.htmlYucca Mountain – One Opinion: Yucca Mountain – One Opinion http://www.claybennett.com/pages/yucca.htmlNuclear Safety: Nuclear SafetyThree Mile Island, PA: Three Mile Island, PA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_IslandThree Mile Island Accident: Three Mile Island Accident March 28, 1979 Partial core meltdown over 5 days Main feedwater pumps failed Backup feedwater system was inoperative Instrumentation failed; operators unaware Should region around TMI be evacuated? No fatalities; little radiation exposure Cleanup lasted 14 years; cost $975 million Public confidence shaken 51 US nuclear reactor orders cancelled 1980-84 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_IslandChernobyl Accident: Chernobyl Accident April 26, 1986 Pripyat, Ukraine Catastrophic steam explosion Destroyed reactor Plume of radioactive fallout spread far USSR, eastern Europe, Scandinavia, UK, eastern US Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia hit hardest 56 direct deaths; ~4,000 long-term deaths 200,000 people evacuated and resettled http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_accidentChernobyl Accident: Chernobyl Accident http://www.ourtimelines.com/zchern.htmlCauses of Chernobyl: Causes of Chernobyl No containment building Poor reactor design (unsafe) Inserting control rods initially increased reactor energy generation Operators were careless & violated plant procedures Switched off many safety systems Withdrew too many control rods Causes still in dispute by various partiesChernobyl Contamination: Chernobyl Contamination http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_accidentRecent US Auto Scrams: Recent US Auto Scrams http://www.nei.orgRecent US Significant Events: Recent US Significant Events http://www.nei.orgNuclear Power and the Environment: Nuclear Power and the EnvironmentUS Sources of Clean Energy: US Sources of Clean Energy http://www.nei.orgThe Environment: The Environment Over the past 50 years, US Nuclear Plants Have: Generated 13.7 Trillion Kilowatt-Hours of Electricity Zero Carbon Depletion & Zero Emissions Avoiding: 3.1 Billion Metric Tons of Carbon 73.6 Million Tons Sulfur Dioxide 35.6 Million Tons of Nitrogen OxidesGreenhouse Gas Production: Greenhouse Gas Production http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlVoluntary CO2 Reductions: Voluntary CO2 Reductions http://www.nei.orgEmissions Avoided: Emissions Avoided http://www.nei.orgLife Cycle Emissions Analysis: Life Cycle Emissions Analysis http://www.nei.org/index.asp?catnum=2&catid=260 Emissions Produced by 1 kWh of Electricity Based on Life-Cycle AnalysisLife-Cycle CO2 Emissions: Life-Cycle CO2 EmissionsNuclear Power Economics: Nuclear Power EconomicsNuclear Operating Performance: Nuclear Operating Performance 71 71 74 77 76 74 80 85 87 89 90 Record Performance 778 Billion kWhrsNuclear Generating Costs: Nuclear Generating Costs 30.3 29.9 27.3 25.5 25.2 27.2 23.5 21.2 20.5 19.4 18.8 Fuel Capital Improve O&M 2002 DollarsUS Nuclear Production Costs: US Nuclear Production Costs http://www.nei.orgUS Production Cost Comparison: US Production Cost Comparison http://www.nei.orgUS Capacity Factors (2004): US Capacity Factors (2004) http://www.nei.orgNuclear PowerPro and Con: Nuclear Power Pro and ConDisadvantages of Nuclear Power: Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Possibly disastrous accidents Nuclear waste dangerous for thousands of years unless reprocessed Risk of nuclear proliferation associated with some designs High capital costs Long construction periods largely due to regulatory delays High maintenance costs High cost of decommissioning plants Designs of current plants are all large-scale Anti-Nuclear Ad: Anti-Nuclear Ad http://perth.indymedia.org/storyuploads/13114/en_4b.jpgAdvantages of Nuclear Power: Advantages of Nuclear Power Substantial base load energy producing capability No greenhouse gas emissions during operation Does not produce air pollutants The quantity of waste produced is small Small number of major accidents only one (TMI) in types of plants in common use Low fuel costs; Large fuel reserves Ease of transport and stockpiling of fuel Future designs may be small and modular For example, SSTAR http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_plantNuclear Energy Institute Ad: Nuclear Energy Institute AdThe Future ofNuclear Power: The Future of Nuclear PowerNuclear Units in Construction: Nuclear Units in Construction http://www.nei.orgNew Nuclear Plants Inevitable : New Nuclear Plants Inevitable It is no longer a matter of debate whether there will be new nuclear plants in the industry’s future. Now, the discussion has shifted to predictions of how many, where and when. New nuclear plants and base-load power plants using new coal technologies are least likely to appear in the populous and energy-hungry Northeast or in California, regions that already have significantly higher energy prices than the Southeast and Midwest These differences will tend to favor lower energy prices in the Southeast and Midwest to the disadvantage of the Northeast and California. Fitch Ratings Ltd., “Wholesale Power Market Update,” March 13, 2006 http://www.nei.orgG-8 Energy Ministers: G-8 Energy Ministers G-8 Energy Ministers Call Nuclear Energy Crucial to Environmentally Sustainable Diversification of Energy Supply Ministers proceed from the fact that diversification of the energy portfolio in terms of energy sources, suppliers and consumers as well as delivery methods and routes will reduce energy security risks not only for individual countries but for the entire international community. For those countries that wish, wide-scale development of safe and secure nuclear energy is crucial for long-term environmentally sustainable diversification of energy supply G8 Energy Ministerial Meeting, March 15-16, 2006, Moscow http://www.nei.org/documents/G-8_Statement_3-21-06.pdf http://www.nei.orgGreenpeace Founder for NP: Greenpeace Founder for NP Greenpeace Founder Patrick Moore Speaks in Favor of Nuclear Energy at U.N. Climate Change Conference There is now a great deal of scientific evidence showing nuclear power to be an environmentally sound and safe choice,” Moore has said, adding that calls to phase out both coal and nuclear power worldwide are unrealistic. “There are simply not enough available forms of alternative energy to replace both of them together. Given a choice between nuclear on the one hand and coal, oil and natural gas on the other, nuclear energy is by far the best option, as it emits neither CO2 nor any other air pollutants.” http://www.greenspiritstrategies.com/D151.cfm http://www.nei.orgFusion Energy: Fusion EnergyNuclear Binding Energy: Nuclear Binding Energy http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/n/nuclearenergy.htmFission vs. Fusion: Fission vs. Fusion http://encarta.msn.comSlide108: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fusionTokamak Fusion Design: Tokamak Fusion Design http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tokamak_fields_lg.pngJET Tokamak: JET TokamakExtra Slides: Extra SlidesNuclear PP Schematic: Nuclear PP Schematic http://www.nucleartourist.com/frconten.htmNuclear PP Cutaway: Nuclear PP Cutaway http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/teachers/nuc-power-plant.htmlPressurized Water Reactor (PWR): Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors/pwr.htmlBoiling Water Reactor (BWR): Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors/bwr.htmlcLatest US Design: Next Generation Reactors Design Highlights 1,400 MWe Plant With Simplified Systems Passive Safety Features Overall Schedule Licensing Process Started 2002 Regulatory Approval Expected 2006 Key Benefits Faster Construction, Lower Costs Improved Safety and Security Improved O&M Costs ESBWR Can Meet U.S. Owner’s New Needs Latest US Design ESBWRSlide117: http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlSlide118: http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlSlide119: http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.htmlSlide120: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors/pwr.htmlGlobal Power Generation: Global Power Generation 335 GW Market Potential over Next 4 Years 35% of Orders Come from China 2003 – 2006 Orders Forecast 187 57 50 28 15 China 125 Rest of Asia 62 Source: EPM S1 Forecast (GW) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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