Pande ICRISAT

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Sustaining by diversifying: 

Sustaining by diversifying Legume-based technologies for Rice-Wheat production systems in Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) Suresh Pande Regional Project Coordinator Crop Diversification Project: ICRISAT

The Issue and RWC: 

The Issue and RWC Continuous cereals cultivation apparently associated with: Yield stagnation Nutrient and water imbalance Increased pest and disease incidence

Rationale of ICRISAT’s Involvement: 

Rationale of ICRISAT’s Involvement Inclusion of legumes make the cereal-dominated system more sustainable Legumes enhance soil fertility Can break insect-pest and disease cycles in cereals Can diversify farm income Add protein to complement cereals Quarter-century expertise relating to important legumes: chickpea, pigeonpea and legumes.

Legume-based technologies for Rice and Wheat Production Systems: 

Legume-based technologies for Rice and Wheat Production Systems Objectives Quantify the scope of legumes in RWCS Develop technological options for overcoming major biotic and abiotic constraints Evaluate improved technologies in farmers’ fields Assess adoption and quantify the impact

Successful Technologies: 

Successful Technologies System characterization Integrated soil, water and nutrient management (ISWNM) Integrated pest, disease and nematode management (IPM) Sustainable land-use systems

System Characterization: 

System Characterization GIS analysis of cropping systems Legumes in rice and wheat cropping systems of the IGP: constraints and opportunities. GIS application in cropping system analysis – case studies in Asia.

Soil and Water Management: 

Soil and Water Management Using GIS with WATBAL: Soil water availability and length of growing season for IGP of India, Nepal and Bangladesh were mapped

Nutrient Management: 

Nutrient Management Following a nutrient model (NUTMOD), rationalize fertilizer use was established on cropping systems: Bangladesh – rice-chickpea India – mungbean-rice-wheat and pigeonpea-wheat Nepal – mungbean-rice-wheat Pakistan – mungbean-wheat

Chickpea flower drop: 

Chickpea flower drop Normal Deficient

Doubling yield with Boron : 

Doubling yield with Boron Boron deficiency a major yield constraint to chickpea and lentil in parts of IGP One kg B per ha increased grain yield in chickpea by 42% to 92% Technology is now ready for large scale application.

Integrated Pest Management Helicoverpa pod borer: 

Integrated Pest Management Helicoverpa pod borer Sowing in May of the extra-short duration genotype, ICPL 88039 – developed by ICRISAT and its partners – which generally escapes Helicoverpa damage Judicious insecticide application

Why pigeonpea for RWS sustainability?: 

Why pigeonpea for RWS sustainability? Known to improve soil fertility Grows largely rainfed. Fixes its own nitrogen Contributes organic matter in the form of senesced leaves, root residue, and releases P from fixed forms. Its area is declining in the IGP because: -Low yield vis-à-vis rice -Greater risks -Longer duration of cultivars available with farmers

ESD Pigeonpea - wheat rotation: 

ESD Pigeonpea - wheat rotation Extra-short-duration (ESD) genotypes have been developed that allow: pigeonpea-wheat rotation. ESD pigeonpea yield 3 t ha-1 Up to about 1 t ha-1 extra yield of wheat could be harvested when it followed ESD pigeonpea

ESD pigeonpea for cultivation in rotation with wheat: 

ESD pigeonpea for cultivation in rotation with wheat ICPL 88039 for cultivation in rotation with wheat

Wheat yield after rice, SD pigeonpea and ESD pigeonpea at Sonepat, Haryana (1997-99): 

Wheat yield after rice, SD pigeonpea and ESD pigeonpea at Sonepat, Haryana (1997-99)

IPM of Legumes (Chickpea): 

IPM of Legumes (Chickpea) The five Bs: Boron deficiency Botrytis gray mold (BGM) Bhilt (Wilt) Borer (Pod borer) Bruchids (storage pests) Blue Bull

Components of IPM of legumes (Chickpea): 

HPR : BGM tolerant variety (Avarodhi) Agronomical: Improved cultural practices Fungicides: Weather/Need-based application Insecticides: Need-based application Components of IPM of legumes (Chickpea) IPM – A Success Story: Rehabilitation of chickpea in Nepal and Bangladesh

Slide20: 

Farmers Participatory IPM

Slide21: 

Farmers Participatory IPM

Slide22: 

Adoption and Impact of chickpea in Nepal

Integrated Pest Management: 

Integrated Pest Management

Sustainable Land Use System The Barind Success Story: 

Sustainable Land Use System The Barind Success Story Chickpea identified as a second crop on residual moisture Low labour, low input technology Farmers are now getting second crop where there was only one Technique extended to Nepal

Sustainable Land Use System Seed Priming: 

Sustainable Land Use System Seed Priming In Barind, Bangladesh Plant stand improved by 22% Grain yield by 47% Stover yield by 31%

Sustainable Land Use System Residual Effect: 

Sustainable Land Use System Residual Effect Long-term experiments conducted with PAU showed: High nitrogen fixing chickpea line out-yielded its normal nodulating parent A book on residual effects of legumes in rice-wheat cropping system of the IGP published.

Sustainable Land Use System Rice Straw Compost: 

Sustainable Land Use System Rice Straw Compost Application of 2 t/ha compost prepared from rice-straw (normally burnt by farmers) along with the recommended levels of fertilizers produced 4-9% greater yield of rice + wheat Technology is ready for up-scaling

New Emerging Researchable Issues if any?: 

New Emerging Researchable Issues if any? Carry over of pests in system perspective Define sustainability indicators of RWC Scale-up of IPM in legumes in IGP Scale-up of seed priming technology Modelling to identify new cropping systems In situ decomposition of crop residue

Conclusions: 

Conclusions Greater inclusion of legumes into RWCS of IGP, the crop diversification project efficiently links ICRISAT to RWC and partners The project is pumping new life into the cereal-based systems and bring new hope to the people of IGP.

Slide30: 

Seeds for Next Crop

Slide31: 

Seed Preparation

Slide32: 

H A P P y H A R V E S T

Slide33: 

Thank you