Lecture 9_Organizing Your Refutation

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Let’s Review!:

Let’s Review!

Refuted Explanations:

Refuted Explanations

Challenging Supports:

Challenging Supports

6 Main Questions:

6 Main Questions

6 Main Questions:

6 Main Questions 1. Is there a source for the evidence? If the other team cannot provide a source for their reason, how can they prove it is true or valid? Example: Recent studies show that dolphins are the smartest animals because they can walk on water. Question  Is there a source for that information?

6 Main Questions:

6 Main Questions 2. Does the source explain the reason clearly? The evidence is not necessarily true if it just states that something is good without explaining why . Example: Bananas are the most delicious fruit because ‘The Fruit Times’ magazine stated that bananas were the best fruit. Question  Why does the source believe this?

6 Main Questions:

Example: Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to have no negative effects on the development of the baby. Question  How recent is that source? 6 Main Questions 3. Is there a date on the source? The evidence is not necessarily true if there is no date given for the source. Old information may no longer be true now.

6 Main Questions:

Example: 100 % of students surveyed said that they love doing presentations in front of the class. Question  Was enough data collected? (How many people were asked?) 6 Main Questions 4. If the support is a statistic, is that statistic valid? The evidence is not necessarily true if the data collection was done incorrectly.

6 Main Questions:

Example: Justin Bieber stated that high blood pressure decreases the risk of heart attacks. Question Does the source have enough experience to be considered an expert in this area? 6 Main Questions 5. Is the source of the support an expert in the field of study being discussed. The evidence is not necessarily true if the source of the support is not an expert, or does not have satisfactory knowledge about the topic being discussed.

6 Main Questions:

Example: The lead food scientist at McDonald’s restaurant has found that eating fast food 3 times a day is good for your health. Question Isn’t that source biased? 6 Main Questions 6. Is this source biased? The evidence is not necessarily true if the source is biased. This means the source may being lying because they can make a profit by providing false evidence.

Assignment #3:

Assignment #3 Find an English advertisement for a product or service and question the evidence/support given (see page 88 in your textbook for an example) You must use the questions we have learned in class You must ask at least 6 questions about the advertisement you chose This assignment can be written by hand; you don’t need to type it Due Date: December 6 th in class

Let’s Practice Challenging Supports:

Let’s Practice Challenging Supports Partner A : Page 84 (1, 2,3) Partner B : Page 86 (1,2,3) Partner A : Page 86 (4,5,6) Partner B : Page 84 (4,5,6)

Organizing your refutation:

Organizing your refutation

First Affirmative Constructive Speech (1AC):

First Affirmative Constructive Speech (1AC) Greeting Introduce the resolution State that you are the affirmative List your reasons State and support your reasons Conclusion

Refutations:

Refutations What does the negative team do in response to the 1AC speech? Refute!

Refutations:

Refutations Refute Reasons It is not true It is true , but not important Challenge supports Ask questions to check quality of supports and sources

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Listen Attack Rebuild

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Listen Debate is not just about speaking You have to listen !

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Listen Debate is not just about speaking You have to listen ! Why? You need to understand the other team, in order to refute their argument successfully.

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Attack Listen critically for weaknesses Use refutations to attack any weaknesses

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Attack Listen critically for weaknesses Use refutations to attack any weaknesses Why? It is the negative’s job to ‘destroy’ the affirmative argument

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Rebuild The negative team must be critical of the affirmative

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Rebuild The negative team must be critical of the affirmative And, then replace the affirmative house with the negative house

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Rebuild The negative team must be critical of the affirmative And, then replace the affirmative house with the negative house Why? This shows how the negative argument is superior

Organizing Your Refutation:

Organizing Your Refutation Listen Attack Rebuild

Debate Topic:

Debate Topic “All people should be vegetarian”

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Refutations Transition Negative Points Conclusion

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Introduces your opinion to the judge and audience Refutations Transition Negative Points Conclusion

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Introduces your opinion to the judge and audience Refutations Attack the First Affirmative Constructive Speech Transition Negative Points Conclusion

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Introduces your opinion to the judge and audience Refutations Attack the First Affirmative Constructive Speech Transition Provides a bridge between refutation and negative points Negative Points Conclusion

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Introduces your opinion to the judge and audience Refutations Attack the First Affirmative Constructive Speech Transition Provides a bridge between refutation and negative points Negative Points State the negatives reasons and supports Conclusion

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Introduces your opinion to the judge and audience Refutations Attack the First Affirmative Constructive Speech Transition Provides a bridge between refutation and negative points Negative Points State the negatives reasons and supports Conclusion Finishes the 1NC

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Refutations Transition Negative Points Conclusion

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Refutations Attack the First Affirmative Constructive Speech Transition Negative Points Conclusion

Recall: Refutation Structure:

Recall: Refutation Structure 1) Signpost 2) Rephrase 3) Negation 4) Rationale why/rationale combined

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Thank you Ladies and Gentleman. Today we are debating the resolution “ All people should be vegetarian ”.

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Thank you Ladies and Gentleman. Today we are debating the resolution “ All people should be vegetarian ”. We on the negative team strongly oppose this resolution.

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Thank you Ladies and Gentleman. Today we are debating the resolution “ All people should be vegetarian ”. We on the negative team strongly oppose this resolution. First, I will refute the affirmative reasons. Then I will give the negative points.

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Introduction Thank you Ladies and Gentleman. Today we are debating the resolution “ All people should be vegetarian ”. We on the negative team strongly oppose this resolution. First, I will refute the affirmative reasons. Then I will give the negative points. (Refute affirmative reasons)

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Transition I have refuted the affirmative’s points. Now I will give the negative points. We have ____________ points. Our first point is… Refutations Negative Points

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC):

First Negative Constructive Speech (1NC) Conclusion We have talked about _____________, _____________, and _____________, and have shown that not all people should be vegetarian . For these reasons we beg to oppose .

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