Slide 2: Crush is a carbonated soft drink brand originally as an orange soda which was invented by California beverage and extract chemist Neil C. Ward. Nearly all flavors of Crush are caffeine-free.In 1916, Clayton J. Howell, president and founder of the Orange Crush Company, partnered with Neil C. Ward and incorporated the company. Ward perfected the process of blending ingredients to create the exclusive formula that yielded the zesty, all-natural orange flavor of Orange Crush. Howell was not new to the soft drink business, having earlier introduced Howell’s Orange Julep. Soft drinks of the time often carried the surname of the inventor along with the product name. Howell sold the rights to use his name in conjunction with his first brand; therefore, Ward was given the honors: Crush was first premiered as Ward's Orange Crush. Originally, Orange Crush included orange pulp in the bottles, giving it a "fresh squeezed" illusion even though the pulp was added rather than remaining from squeezed oranges. Pulp has not been in the bottles for decades.Crush was purchased by Procter & Gamble in 1980 (with the exception of the Canadian rights, which were purchased in 1984). Procter & Gamble only manufactured "bottler's base," which was a concentrate consisting of flavor and color. 1 milliliter of bottler's base was combined with syrup and carbonated water to create a 12 ounce bottle of Crush. In 1989, Cadbury Schweppes acquired Crush USA from Procter & Gamble Co. Cadbury Schweppes spun off its US beverage business as Dr Pepper Snapple Group in 2008.The Crush brand and trademark are currently owned by Dr Pepper Snapple Group of Plano, Texas. Crush is also popular in Canada, where it is distributed by subsidiary Canada Dry Mott's. It is distributed by various Pepsi bottlers, the biggest being the Pepsi Bottling Group Canada.Other countries in which Crush is sold are Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Guatemala, Lebanon, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Syria, Uruguay and at one time Costa Rica, Ecuador and Bolivia. In some countries of Latin America the Crush brand is distributed by the Coca-Cola Company, using the same colors and bottles as Fanta.Several flavors (Grape, Cream Soda, Lime, Orange) are available at most stores throughout North America; however, others are distributed only within small markets. Pineapple Crush and Birch Beer Crush, for instance, is relatively easy to obtain in both can and single serving bottle in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador and in Fort McMurray, Alberta. This will soon change, as the Pepsi Bottling Group has recently announced they would begin distributing Crush in a majority of their territory in the United States, followed less than a month later by PepsiAmericas' announcement that they would follow suit in most of their territory. The changeover in distribution became official in late January and early February 2009, with the Pepsi bottlers taking over the Crush rights in those areas and the bottling rights to Hawaiian Punch (which the Pepsi bottlers in those areas had handled prior to 2009) going to the bottlers of Dr Pepper and 7 Up.In late 18th century, scientists made important progress in replicating naturally carbonated mineral waters. In 1767, Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide to make carbonated water when he suspended a bowl of distilled water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds, England. His invention of carbonated water, (also known as soda water), is the major and defining component of most soft drinks. Priestley found water thus treated had a pleasant taste, and he offered it to friends as a refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping oil of vitriol (or sulfuric acid as it is now called) onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas, and encouraging the gas to dissolve into an agitated bowl of water.Another Englishman, John Mervin Nooth, improved Priestley's design and sold his apparatus for commercial use in pharmacies. Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman invented a generating apparatus that made carbonated water from chalk by the use of sulfuric acid. Bergman's apparatus allowed imitation mineral water to be produced in large amounts. Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius started to add flavors (spices, juices and wine) to carbonated water in the late 18th century. .
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