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What types of IP addresses are there? IP address management Evolution of IP address management Introduction to APNIC What is APNIC? Internet Protocol Addresses: Internet Protocol Addresses What are they like and how do they behave? “On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog…”: 'On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog…' by Peter Steiner, from The New Yorker, (Vol.69 (LXIX) no. 20) “On the Internet…” you are nothing but an IP Address!: 'On the Internet…' you are nothing but an IP Address! 22.214.171.124 Internet for everything!: Internet for everything! What is an IP Address?: What is an IP Address? Overview: Overview What is an IP address? …and what it is not Internet address routing What is an IP address like? IP address characteristics What is an Address?: What is an Address? An identifier which includes information about how to find its subject (according to some rules of interpretation) Normally hierarchical Each part provides more specific detail For example… Room x, Level M, Sunway Hotel Phnom Penh, Cambodia www.itu.int email@example.com What is an IP address?: What is an IP address? Internet identifier including information about how to reach a location (via the Internet routing system) IPv4: 32-bit* number 4 billion different addresses available IPv6: 128-bit number 340 billion billion billion billion addresses available For example… 126.96.36.199 (a computer) 202.12.29/24 (APNIC’s network) * bit = binary digit Internet address routing: Internet address routing Internet address routing: Internet address routing 188.8.131.52 What else is an IP address?: What else is an IP address? IP addresses are… Internet infrastructure addresses a finite Public Resource not 'owned' by address users not dependent upon the DNS IP does not mean 'Intellectual Property' IP addresses vs domain names: 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 IP addresses vs domain names DNS IP Address Characteristics: IP Address Characteristics What is “my” address?: IP Address = Network interface address Not a computer’s address Nor a person’s address What is 'my' address? IPv4 IPv6 Is “my” address permanent?: Is 'my' address permanent? No - Customer addresses often change Dialup addresses are 'dynamic'… 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 Is “my” address unique?: Is 'my' address unique? Not necessarily… Public IP address = unique Private* IP address = non-unique * RFC 1918 Summary so far: Summary so far IP Addresses identify location Provide specific information for routing IP Addresses identify interfaces Not computers, companies or users IP Addresses often change And may not be unique IP Address Management: IP Address Management Overview: Overview Early address management Evolution of address management Address management today Address policy development Address Management – pre 1992: Address Management – pre 1992 RFC 1020 1987 RFC 1261 1991 Address Management – 1990’s: Global routing table: ’88 - ’92 Address Management – 1990’s Early 1990’s: Internet scaling problems Address depletion due to classful architecture (A, B, C) Routing table overload Due to lack of route aggregation Address Management – 1990’s: Address Management – 1990’s Internet widely projected to fail Growth would stop by mid-’90s Urgent measures required Action taken by IETF / Internet community 1993: Development of 'CIDR' addressed both technical problems Address depletion Through more accurate assignment Routing table overload Through address space aggregation RFC 1519 RFC 1518 RFC 1517 Classful & Classless addressing: Network boundaries may occur at any bit Classful andamp; Classless addressing Obsolete inefficient depletion of B space too many routes from C space Classful Classless Best Current Practice Address Management – 1992-: Address Management – 1992- Administrative problems remained Greater complexity of CIDR-based allocations Increasing awareness of conservation and aggregation goals Need for fairness and consistency RFC 1366 (1992) Described the 'growth of the Internet and its increasing globalization' Additional complexity of address management Set out the basis for a regionally distributed Internet registry system RFC 1366 Address Management – 1992-: Address Management – 1992- Establishment of RIRs APNIC, ARIN, RIPE NCC (LACNIC later) Regional open processes Cooperative policy development Industry self-regulatory model bottom up APNIC ARIN RIPE NCC LACNIC APNIC community ARIN community RIPE community LACNIC community Address Management – Today: Address Management – Today Address Management – Today: Address Management – Today ISP IPv4 IPv6 Allocation Allocation Assignment Where can I get IP addresses?: Where can I get IP addresses? 1. Allocation from APNIC/NIR (A) 2. Sub-allocation from upstream ISP (B) 1. Non-portable assignment from ISP (C) 2. Portable assignment from APNIC (D) Assignments ISP End-user A B C D C /22 /26 /24 /24 Slide31: Questions ? What is APNIC?: What is APNIC? What is APNIC?: What is APNIC? Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific Region Regional authority for Internet Resource distribution IP addresses (IPv4 and IPv6), AS numbers, reverse DNS delegation Established 1993 Operating within ICANN (IANA) structure Pilot project of APNG in Tokyo, Japan Relocated to Brisbane, Australia in 1998 About APNIC: About APNIC Industry self-regulatory body Participation by those who need and use Internet resources Consensus-based, open and transparent Non-profit, neutral and independent Membership-based structure Open to any interested party Provides formal structure for cost recovery, election of representatives etc APNIC mission statement: APNIC mission statement 'Addressing the challenge of responsible Internet resource distribution in the Asia Pacific region.' What does APNIC do?: What does APNIC do? Resource services IPv4, IPv6, ASNs Reverse DNS Policy coordination and implementation Open bottom-up, self-regulatory Membership reviews and approves policy Resource registration Authoritative server: whois What else does APNIC do?: What else does APNIC do? APNIC meetings Information dissemination Apster Web and ftp site mailing lists http://www.apnic.net/net_comm/lists/index.html Training courses andamp; open seminars http://www.apnic.net/training Subsidised for APNIC members Infrastructure services Rootserver deployment in 2003 APNIC is not…: APNIC is not… Not a network operator Does not provide networking services Only selected infrastructure services Not a standards body Does not develop technical standards Works within IETF in relevant areas (eg IPv6) Not a domain name registry or registrar Will refer queries to relevant parties APNIC partners: APNIC partners Other Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) ARIN, RIPE NCC, LACNIC, (AfriNIC) Other Internet organisations IANA, ICANN, IETF, IEPG, ISOC etc. Other groups ITU, PITA, SANOG etc etc Asia Pacific Internet bodies APNG, APIA, APAN, APTLD, APRICOT Co-founder of APRICOT Where is APNIC?: Where is APNIC? APNIC region: APNIC region Ref http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/worldregions.htm 850 members in 42 economies APNIC Membership: APNIC Membership APNIC membership: APNIC membership APNIC membership: APNIC membership Membership sub-regions: Membership sub-regions How to become a member: How to become a member No Yes Yes Membership fee structure: Membership fee structure For more information see: http://www.apnic.net/member/ Benefits of APNIC membership: Benefits of APNIC membership NOT: Automatic or easier resource allocation Internet Registry structure: Internet Registry structure APNIC services & activities: APNIC services andamp; activities Resources Services IPv4, IPv6, ASN, reverse DNS Policy development Approved and implemented by membership APNIC whois db whois.apnic.net Registration of resources Information dissemination APNIC meetings Web and ftp site Mailing lists Open for anyone! Training Courses Subsidised for members Co-ordination andamp; liaison With membership, other RIRs andamp; other Internet Orgs. Slide51: Questions ? Thanks: Thanks firstname.lastname@example.org You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.