surveillance homeland security

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Surveillance and homeland security: 

Surveillance and homeland security Dr Ian Brown, UCL and Cambridge-MIT Institute

Signals intelligence: 

Signals intelligence Everybody’s at it: Echelon Frenchelon Multinationals “We steal secrets with espionage, with communications, with reconnaissance satellites” – James Woolsey

UKUSA alliance: 

UKUSA alliance Based on US-UK cooperation during Second World War Canada, Australia and New Zealand have also become “second parties” UK handles Europe, Africa and European CIS; US Asian CIS; Australia South Pacific and South-East Asia Cooperates with Germany, Japan, China…

Menwith Hill: 

Menwith Hill Officially RAF base; unofficially is run by NSA

Radio interception: 

Radio interception High frequency radio interception antenna (AN/FLR9)

Microwave interception: 

Microwave interception Microwave links carry signals between cities, but spill out into space CANYON and CHALET US satellites collect signals from Soviet Union, Middle East

Submarine interception: 

Submarine interception Underwater cable interception in Okhotsk Sea (1971) and Barents Sea (1979) USS Jimmy Carter specially designed for underwater divers (2005)

“Black boxes”: 

“Black boxes” CALEA 1994 RIPA 2000 s.12 ETSI IETF

Communications exchange interception 1995: 

Communications exchange interception 1995

Narus ST-6400: 

Narus ST-6400 Installed by AT&T in San Francisco, Seattle, San Jose, Los Angeles and San Diego trunk facilities

Intelligence concerns: 

Intelligence concerns “Law Enforcement is a protective shield for all the other governmental activities . You should use the right word - we're talking about foreign intelligence, that's what we're talking about - that's what all this is about. There is no question - that's what it is about. The Law enforcement is a smoke screen, because we all understand law enforcement, policemen, courts, this is something we see everyday in our life. And it's an important element, I'm not suggesting it's not relevant but it is a protective shield for what goes on behind that.” – David Herson, SOGIS

US intercept authorisation: 

US intercept authorisation 1945 – 1975 SHAMROCK uncovered during Watergate investigation; led to DoJ investigation and 1978 FISA Bush issued orders 2001 re-authorising NSA domestic surveillance Up to 1/3 communications traffic routed via US NSA daily collects "terabytes of speech, text, and image data"

Efficacy of domestic surveillance: 

Efficacy of domestic surveillance ~5000 Americans surveilled over 4 years; led to <10 warrants per year “Techniques that look at people's behavior to predict terrorist intent are so far from reaching the level of accuracy that's necessary that I see them as nothing but civil liberty infringement engines." –Jeff Jonas, Chief Scientist, IBM Entity Analytics

UK content surveillance: 

UK content surveillance Comms intercepts authorised by Secretaries of State under RIPA Agencies 1466 in 2002; 6 per day for Blunkett Blanket overseas warrant for GCHQ from Foreign Secretary

Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000: 

Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 “Communications data” obtained by self-authorised demand from police, Customs etc. Content requires warrant from government minister

Comms data access purposes: 

Comms data access purposes in the interests of national security; for the purpose of preventing or detecting crime or of preventing disorder; in the interests of the economic well-being of the United Kingdom; in the interests of public safety; for the purpose of protecting public health; for the purpose of assessing or collecting any tax, duty, levy or other imposition, contribution or charge payable to a government department; for the purpose, in an emergency, of preventing death or injury or any damage to a person’s physical or mental health, or of mitigating any injury or damage to a person’s physical or mental health.

“Snooper’s charter”: 

“Snooper’s charter” The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. The Department of Health. The Home Office. The Department of Trade and Industry. The Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions. The Department for Work and Pensions. The Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment for Northern Ireland. Any local authority within the meaning of section 1 of the Local Government Act 1999. Any fire authority as defined in the Local Government (Best Value) Performance Indicators Order 2000 The Scottish Drug Enforcement Agency. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Constabulary. A Universal Service Provider within the meaning of the Postal Services Act 2000 A council constituted under section 2 of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994. A district council within the meaning of the Local Government Act (Northern Ireland) 1972. The Common Services Agency of the Scottish Health Service. The Northern Ireland Central Services Agency for the Health and Social Services. The Environment Agency. The Financial Services Authority. The Food Standards Agency. The Health and Safety Executive. The Information Commissioner. The Office of Fair Trading. The Postal Services Commission.

Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001: 

Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 Introduced shortly after Sep. 11th Contains provisions for data retention by Communications Service Providers Must be for purposes directly or indirectly related to national security

European Union: 

European Union EU just passed Data Retention Directive Comms data to be retained 6 months – 2 years

Data to be retained: 

Data to be retained The Internet Protocol (IP) address, whether dynamic or static, allocated by the Internet access provider to a communication; The User ID of the source of a communication; The Connection Label or telephone number allocated to any communication entering the public telephone network; Name and address of the subscriber or registered user to whom the IP address, Connection Label or User ID was allocated at the time of the communication. Data necessary to trace and identify the destination of a communication: The Connection Label or User ID of the intended recipient(s) of a communication; Name(s) and address(es) of the subscriber(s) or registered user(s) who are the intended recipient(s) of the communication. The date and time of the log-in and log-off of the Internet sessions based on a certain time zone. The calling telephone number for dial-up access; The digital subscriber line (DSL) or other end point identifier of the originator of the communication; The media access control (MAC) address or other machine identifier of the originator of the communication.


Encryption Diffie, RSA PGP, munitions Key escrow EU export controls

Decryption powers: 

Decryption powers S.49 notices from senior police, Customs etc. impose “disclosure requirements” that may usually be met by production of plaintext Keys may be demanded in special circumstances by chiefs of police, Customs commissioners, etc. Notices may prohibit “tipping-off” 2 and 5-year prison terms


Conclusion US and allies spend many billions of dollars per year on COMINT Internet and fibre optics initially proved challenging; now main problem is dealing with the mountains of data captured Encryption may completely change future utility of COMINT

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