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Slide1: 

Biogeochemical Cycles: Uniting the Subsystems I. The Water Cycle - Rate of Flux 1. Basically, net evaporation over oceans is balanced by rainfall over land.

Slide2: 

Biogeochemical Cycles: Uniting the Subsystems I. The Water Cycle - Rate of Flux 1. Basically, net evaporation over oceans is balanced by rainfall over land. 2. Atmosphere contains only 1/100,000th of water in soil and water bodies. Transit through the atmosphere is about 2 weeks; transit through liquid phase is about 3650 years.

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Biogeochemical Cycles: Uniting the Subsystems I. The Water Cycle - Rate of Flux 1. Basically, net evaporation over oceans is balanced by rainfall over land. 2. Atmosphere contains only 1/100,000th of water in soil and water bodies. Transit through the atmosphere is about 2 weeks; transit through liquid phase is about 3650 years. - Effects of Life 1. Plant biomass sucks water out of the soil into the atmosphere. (evapotranspiration)

Slide4: 

Biogeochemical Cycles: Uniting the Subsystems I. The Water Cycle - Rate of Flux 1. Basically, net evaporation over oceans is balanced by rainfall over land. 2. Atmosphere contains only 1/100,000th of water in soil and water bodies. Transit through the atmosphere is about 2 weeks; transit through liquid phase is about 3650 years. - Effects of Life 1. Plant biomass sucks water out of the soil into the atmosphere. 2. Volatiles act as nuclei on which raindrops can form ("Smoky Mountains"). Rainforests help produce the rain they depend on.

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Biogeochemical Cycles: Uniting the Subsystems I. The Water Cycle - Human Impacts

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Biogeochemical Cycles: Uniting the Subsystems I. The Water Cycle - Human Impacts 1. 50% of surface runoff of planet - 70% agriculture - 20% industry - 10% personal use

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Biogeochemical Cycles: Uniting the Subsystems I. The Water Cycle - Human Impacts 1. 50% of surface runoff of planet - 70% agriculture - 20% industry - 10% personal use 2. Many of the Earth’s great rivers no longer reach the ocean in dry years – 100% drawn off by humans - Colorado - Yellow - Ganges - Nile

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Biogeochemical Cycles: Uniting the Subsystems I. The Water Cycle - Human Impacts 1. 50% of surface runoff of planet - 70% agriculture - 20% industry - 10% personal use 2. Many of the Earth’s great rivers no longer reach the ocean in dry years 100% drawn off by humans - Colorado - Yellow - Ganges - Nile 3. Dams

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3. Dams – Three Gorges, Yangtze River Ship locks painting

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3. Dams – Three Gorges, Yangtzee River When completed (2009): 1.5 miles wide, 600 feet high Reservoir 570 feet deep and nearly 400 miles long. Energy = 18 nuke plants Regulate a deadly, flood-prone river Displace 1.2 million people Cover 1300 important archeological sites Largest dam in the world – largest engineering project in the world.

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3. Dams – Problems:

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3. Dams – Problems: - Flood upstream habitats

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3. Dams – Problems: - Flood upstream habitats - release toxins into water

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3. Dams – Problems: - Flood upstream habitats - release toxins into water - cause eutrophication

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3. Dams – Problems: - Flood upstream habitats - release toxins into water - cause eutrophication - reduce oxygen content of water

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3. Dams – Problems: - Flood upstream habitats - release toxins into water - cause eutrophication - reduce oxygen content of water - sediment buildup decreases “head” and power generation

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3. Dams – Problems: - Flood upstream habitats - release toxins into water - cause eutrophication - reduce oxygen content of water - sediment buildup decreases “head” and power generation - sediment trap starves downstream of sediment and nutrients – erosion of river delta and loss of productive estuary - reduce fisheries productivity

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3. Dams – Problems: “The construction of dams is increasingly regarded as the biggest conservation threat to aquatic and riparian biodiversity in many river basins throughout the world.” J. Wu, J. Huang, and X. Han. 2003. Science 302:11-49-1150.

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3. Dams – Problems: In U.S., many dams are being "decommissioned"...

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Yellow River (China) Days Dry at Mouth: 1995: 122 1996: 133 1997: 226 (7 months!) 4. Overtapped Rivers

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Yellow River – “China’s Sorrow” – floods naturally 1887 – 2 million people died 1931 – 4 million people died 1938 – 1 million people died

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Yellow River – “China’s Sorrow” – floods naturally 1887 – 2 million people died 1931 – 4 million people died 1938 – 1 million people died The Yellow River is one of the most silt-laden rivers in the world – up to 60% by weight!

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Yellow River – “China’s Sorrow” – floods naturally 1887 – 2 million people died 1931 – 4 million people died 1938 – 1 million people died The Yellow River is one of the most silt-laden rivers in the world – up to 60% by weight! - starve downstream of water and sediment If silt is not flushed to ocean, it stays in riverbed. Raising the height of the riverbed increases the frequency of flooding.

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- starve downstream of water and sediment The Aral Sea, Kazakhstan; once the 4th largest inland sea in world Has lost 60% of its water, drawn off for agricultural purposes.

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- starve downstream of water and sediment The Aral Sea, Kazakhstan: - Salinization increased, killing the productive fisheries industry

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- starve downstream of water and sediment The Aral Sea, Kazakhstan: - Salinization increased, killing the productive fisheries industry - Agricultural lands – salt increased 6X by 1994 the productivity had dropped by 20-50%. drinking water - 200-500 ppm dissolved salts (Na, Ca K, Mg) Salt water - 33,500 ppm add 10,000 tons of drinking water to soil/ha/yr adds 2-5 tons of salt/ha/yr! 1000 tons of water for 1 ton wheat

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- starve downstream of water and sediment The Aral Sea, Kazakhstan: - salt and dust in air became a significant health problem April 2003

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- starve downstream of water and sediment The Ganges and Indus: Water is diverted for agriculture. Salt water intrudes mangrove estuaries Kills mangroves Nursery areas for fish Storm breaks and flood regulators.

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Other Problems of "overtapping" rivers... 1. Reduced water availability 2. Salinized soils (20% worldwide) 3. Regional Conflicts - “water rights” issues cross state and national boundaries

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3. Regional Conflicts - Egypt: gets 97% of its water from outside its borders… water treaties with the Sudan are the oldest on record.

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3. Regional Conflicts - Egypt: gets 97% of its water from outside its borders… water treaties with the Sudan are the oldest on record. - Ethiopia, with headwaters of the Blue Nile, wants to construct dams for hydroelectric power. Egypt and Sudan have battled them for decades. “The only matter that could take Egypt to war again is water” – Anwar Sadat, 1979

Slide32: 

3. Regional Conflicts - The Jordan River (Jordan and Israel) - The Indus (India and Pakistan) - The Ganges (India and Bangladesh) - The Colorado: Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, California - The Mississippi – flood control upstream makes bigger flood downstream.

Slide33: 

3. Regional Conflicts - The Jordan River (Jordan and Israel) - The Indus (India and Pakistan) - The Ganges (India and Bangladesh) - The Colorado: Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, California - The Mississippi – flood control upstream makes bigger flood downstream. - Even GA and SC are starting to discuss issues of water rights for Savannah River water....

Slide34: 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles

Slide35: 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr

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BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr Terrestrial Biosphere: ~560 (living)

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BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr Terrestrial Biosphere: ~560 (aboveground)

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BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr Terrestrial Biosphere: ~560 (aboveground) ~1500 (soil)

Slide39: 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr Terrestrial Biosphere: ~560 (aboveground) ~1500 (soil) Marine System: ~1000 (surface)

Slide40: 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr Terrestrial Biosphere: ~560 (aboveground) ~1500 (soil) Marine System: ~1000 (surface) ~37,000 (deep)

Slide41: 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr Terrestrial Biosphere: ~560 (aboveground) ~1500 (soil) Marine System: ~1000 (surface) ~37,000 (deep) Lithosphere: ~4000 (fossil fuels)

Slide42: 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr Terrestrial Biosphere: ~560 (aboveground) ~1500 (soil) Marine System: ~1000 (surface) ~37,000 (deep) Lithosphere: ~4000 (fossil fuels) 44,780

Slide43: 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) Atmosphere: ~720 + 3/yr Terrestrial Biosphere: ~560 (aboveground) ~1500 (soil) Marine System: ~1000 (surface) ~37,000 (deep) Lithosphere: ~4000 (fossil fuels) ~100,000,000 (Marine sediments and carbonate rocks) 44,780 .0044%

Slide44: 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: II. Carbon Cycles A. Short Term Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoirs (billions of metric tons) 2. Fluxes

Slide46: 

232.7 billion mt/year in flux ..... = a ridiculously small fraction of total planetary carbon in flux per year

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