Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia :

1 Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain exhibited in the symptoms of the mind.

Psychological Disorders:

2 Psychological Disorders Schizophrenia Symptoms of Schizophrenia Subtypes of Schizophrenia Understanding Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia:

3 Schizophrenia If depression is the common cold of psychological disorders, schizophrenia is the cancer. Nearly 1 in a 100 suffer from schizophrenia and in the world over 24 million people suffer from this disease (WHO, 2002). Strikes young people as they mature into adults. Affects men and women equally, but men suffer from it more severely than women.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia:

4 Symptoms of Schizophrenia Literal translation “split mind”. A group of severe disorders characterized by: Disorganized and delusional thinking. Disturbed perceptions. Inappropriate emotions and actions.

Disorganized & Delusional Thinking:

5 Other forms of delusions include, delusions of persecution (“someone is following me”) or grandeur (“I am a king”). Disorganized & Delusional Thinking This morning when I was at Hillside [Hospital], I was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie stars … I’m Marry Poppins. Is this room painted blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four weeks after my eighteenth birthday.” (Sheehan, 1982) This monologue illustrates fragmented, bizarre thinking with distorted beliefs, called delusions (“I’m Mary Poppins”).

Disorganized & Delusional Thinking:

6 Disorganized & Delusional Thinking Many psychologists believe disorganized thoughts occur because of selective attention failure (fragmented and bizarre thoughts).

Disturbed Perceptions:

7 Disturbed Perceptions An individual with schizophrenia may perceive things that are not there ( hallucinations ). Frequently such hallucinations are auditory, and less often visual, somatosensory , olfactory or gustatory. L. Berthold, Untitled. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg August Natter, Witches Head. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg Photos of paintings by Krannert Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Inappropriate Emotions & Actions:

8 Inappropriate Emotions & Actions An individual with schizophrenia may laugh at the news of someone dying, or show no emotion at all ( apathy ). Patients with schizophrenia can continually rub an arm or rock a chair or remain motionless for hours ( catatonia ).

Subtypes of Schizophrenia:

9 Subtypes of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a cluster of disorders. These subtypes share some features but there are other symptoms that differentiate these subtypes.

Positive and Negative Symptoms:

10 Positive and Negative Symptoms Schizophrenics have inappropriate symptoms (hallucinations, disorganized thinking, deluded ways) not present in normal individuals ( positive symptoms ). Schizophrenics also have absence of appropriate symptoms (apathy, expressionless faces, rigid bodies) present in normal individuals ( negative symptoms ).

Chronic and Acute Schizophrenia:

11 Chronic and Acute Schizophrenia When schizophrenia is slow to develop ( chronic/process ) recovery is doubtful. Such schizophrenics usually displays negative symptoms. When schizophrenia rapidly develops ( acute/reactive ) recovery is better. Such schizophrenics usually shows positive symptoms.

Subtypes:

12 Subtypes

Genetic Factors:

13 Genetic Factors The likelihood of individuals suffering from schizophrenia is 50% if their identical twins have the disease (Gottesman, 1991). 0 10 20 30 40 50 Identical Both parents Fraternal One parent Sibling Nephew or niece Unrelated

Psychological Factors:

14 Psychological Factors Psychological and environmental factors can trigger schizophrenia if the individual was genetically predisposed (Nicols & Gottesman, 1983). Genain Sisters Genetically identical Genain sisters suffer from schizophrenia. Twice as many as statistically likely due to genetics, thus there are contributing environmental factors. Courtesy of Genain Family

Warning Signs:

15 Warning Signs Early warning signs of schizophrenia include: Birth complications, oxygen deprivation and low-birth weight. 2. Short attention span and poor muscle coordination. 3. Poor peer relations and solo play. 6. Emotional unpredictability. 5. Disruptive and withdrawn behavior. 4. A mother’s long lasting schizophrenia. 1.

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID):

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) 16

Dissociative Disorder:

Dissociative Disorder 17 Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Symptoms Sense of being unreal. 2. Being separated from the body. 3. Watching themselves as in a movie.

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID):

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Is a disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities formerly called multiple personality disorder. 18 Chris Sizemore (DID) Lois Bernstein/ Gamma Liason

DID Critics:

DID Critics 19 Critics argue that diagnosis of DID has increased in the late 20 th century. Also DID has not been found in other countries. Critics Arguments Role-playing by people open to therapist’s suggestion. 2. Learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety.

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