Lewis ISDS 2007stp


Presentation Description

No description available.


Presentation Transcript


Using Electronic Surveillance Systems in Resource-Poor Settings: Why and How Sheri Happel Lewis, MPH1 Jacqueline Coberly, PhD1 Richard Wojcik, MS1 Raj Ashar, MA1 Jean-Paul Chretien, MD, PhD2 1Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 2Department of Defense Global Emerging Surveillance and Response System ISDS Annual Conference October 11, 2007


Background Countries with Activities Supported by U.S. Agencies, 2004-2006


Background Most common public health threats are infectious diseases From WHO World Health Report 2007


Background Courtesy of WHO, 28 September 2007 H5N1 Confirmed Cases and Deaths since 2003


Background Purpose of the WHO International Health Regulations 2005 …to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade (IHR 2005, Article 2). Key Highlights of IHR (2005) IHR (1969) outdated, limited in scope Notification of any event that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern Entered into force 15 June 2007 Emphasis on collaboration with WHO Requirement to strengthen each member country’s surveillance and response capacity Implementation of health measures for travelers


Methods Firsthand knowledge of system setting Ability to speak with implementers and end users Assess what is successful and why Identify potential areas for improvement Site visits to resource-limited countries with existing disease surveillance systems help define the issues to be considered during system implementation. Site visit to Lao PDR, September 2006 Site visit to Peru, March 2007 Site Visits

Initial Assessment: 

Initial Assessment Conduct a thorough review of current practices Items for consideration include: Understand Ministry of Health organizational structure Review existing reporting requirements Determine if the MoH is centralized or decentralized Determine what surveillance activities are in place Hospital-based surveillance Private physician offices Laboratory-based surveillance Village health workers, community-based surveillance Ascertain if any data are collected electronically At what level and with what frequency and reliability? By what mode and how often are data transmitted?

Define System Purpose and Requirements: 

Define System Purpose and Requirements What diseases are of most importance? Why is surveillance being conducted? What is a realistic expectation with respect to data collection? How much data should be collected? How frequently will data be analyzed? Will routine training be available? What are the purpose and requirements of the enhanced surveillance system? Consider the following:

Implementation Considerations: 

Implementation Considerations Key Considerations in Planning Electronic Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Low-Resource Settings1 1Adapted from a model (from Singer PA et al. Nature 2007;449:160-3) for assessing the potential success of certain health-related biotechnologies in resource-poor regions.


Feasibility of Electronic Data Capture What is the lowest level at which data can be reasonably collected? Village health center, hospital, clinic What data will be collected? Minimum data set for surveillance or additional variables for future use By what method will data be collected? Computer, PDA, phone, etc. How will data be transmitted to others? Internet, phone, USB flash drive, etc. Considerations include:

Data Capture Possibilities in Remote Areas: 

Data Capture Possibilities in Remote Areas **Recurring monthly/yearly connection cost that is inherent in all the technologies

Data Capture Possibilities in Remote Areas (cont’d): 

Data Capture Possibilities in Remote Areas (cont’d) **Recurring monthly/yearly connection cost that is inherent in all the technologies

Analytical Capacity: 

Analytical Capacity Concerns of potential implementers and users: Ministries of Health feel less ownership when using commercial technology. Introducing software/technology with expensive recurring costs should be avoided. Beware of training/resource costs of software upgrades. Is there an existing analytical package being used by the epidemiologists? If YES, consider enhancing the existing tools for the purposes of early event detection. If NO, consider using open-source packages to ensure affordability and long-term sustainability or developing custom software if existing packages will not meet needs.

Case Study: Philippines: 

Case Study: Philippines Visit to National Epidemiology Center (Manila) Decentralized health care structure Existing surveillance activities (ILI, lab-based, animals) New country-wide policy for disease surveillance and response activities Field Epidemiology Training Program Basic system requirements defined Using EpiInfo Visit to Regional Epidemiology Surveillance Unit (RESU) (Cebu City) Self-contained, stable population Hospital-based surveillance / private physician reporting Lacking in resources (hardware, paper, etc.) Difficulties in data transmission (slow, network failures, risk of corruption ) Using EpiInfo for data entry and analysis Data collection during outbreak investigations is difficult

Case Study: Philippines: 

Case Study: Philippines Visit to City Epidemiology Surveillance Unit (CESU) (Cebu City) One doctor for every 3-4 health centers Health workers (non-doctors) can handle “ordinary” illness Divided into 5 areas, each with a nurse manager for data validation / review ILI surveillance, fever surveillance In-home inspections for confirmed dengue cases Excellent political support Visit to Guadalupe Health Center (Cebu City) Population of 30,000, approximately 3,500 families Specific morbidity days Records kept in notebooks, files cleaned every five years Patient’s vitals and weight recorded at the start of the visit Forms are filled out for mothers and children living in recorded households

Case Study: Philippines: 

Case Study: Philippines Potential exists for enhanced data collection activities. Need for enhanced software for event detection. Need for improved data collection / transmission. Summary of Findings


Conclusions Electronic disease surveillance can and is being used successfully in resource-limited areas. There must be desire and commitment at every level of the health infrastructure in order to sustain a system. System requirements and data collection methodologies must be carefully considered and understood prior to system implementation. Evaluations are essential in order to ensure that money is being used efficiently and effectively and undue burden is not being placed on the system.


Acknowledgements U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 (NAMRU-2) Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD) Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) Peru Ministry of Health Philippines National Epidemiology Center (NEC) Lao PDR National Centre for Laboratory and Epidemiology (NCLE) World Health Organization


QUESTIONS? Contact Information Sheri Lewis JHU/APL 240.228.7604 sheri.lewis@jhuapl.edu

authorStream Live Help