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Nanotechnology & Space Exploration : 

Nanotechnology & Space Exploration Minoo N. Dastoor NASA/NSF

How Nanotechnology Impacts Properties of Materials: 

How Nanotechnology Impacts Properties of Materials Mechanical Dictated by particle size (Griffith criteria), morphology and strength of interfaces (chemistry and roughness) Thermal Emissivity influenced by particle size and enhanced surface area/roughness Thermal conductivity controlled by particle size (phonon coupling and quantum effects) and nano-scale voids Electrical Nano structure and defects influence conductivity and bandgap energy (conductivity, current density, thermoelectric effects) High aspect ratios enhance field emission and percolation threshold Optical Transparency and color dominated by size effects Photonic bandcap controlled by size (/10) and nanostructure Nanotechnology enables discrete control of desired materials properties:


Nanotechnology Working at the atomic, molecular and supramolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 – 100 nm range, in order to understand, create and use materials, devices and systems with fundamentally new properties and functions because of their small structure NNI definition encourages new contributions that were not possible before. novel phenomena, properties and functions at nanoscale, which are nonscalable outside of the nm domain the ability to measure / control / manipulate matter at the nanoscale in order to change those properties and functions integration along length scales, and fields of application

NNI Goals: 

Maintain a world-class research and development program aimed at realizing the full potential of nanotechnology Facilitate transfer of new technologies into products for economic growth, jobs, and other public benefit Develop educational resources, a skilled workforce, and the supporting infrastructure and tools to advance nanotechnology Support responsible development of nanotechnology NNI Goals

Global Forecast: 

Source: October 2004 Lux Research Report: “Sizing Nanotechnology’s Value Chain” Global Forecast

Industrial Prototyping and Nanotechnology Commercialization: 

Industrial Prototyping and Nanotechnology Commercialization 1st: Passive nanostructures (1st generation products) Example: coatings, nanoparticles, nanostructured metals, polymers, ceramics 2nd: Active nanostructures Example: 3D transistors, amplifiers, targeted drugs, actuators, adaptive structures 3rd: Systems of nanosystems 4th: Molecular nanosystems Example: molecular devices ‘by design’, atomic design, emerging functions ~ 2010 ~ 2005 ~ 2000 New R&D Challenges ~ 2015-2020 CMU AIChE Journal, 2004, Vol. 50 (5), M. Roco Example: guided assembling; 3D networking and new hierarchical architectures, robotics, evolutionary F O U R G E N E R A T I O N S

Mission Statement: 

Exploration Systems Aeronautics Research Space Operations Science Mission Statement To pioneer in: Space Exploration Scientific Discovery Aeronautics Research NASA Exploration Systems Space Operations Aeronautics Research Science

Future Challenges: 

Capability per Mass & Power Intelligence per Mass & Power Many of NASA’s challenges are not achievable by extensions of current technology Diameters > 25-50 m are not achievable by extension of current materials technologies Factors of 10 - 100 are not achievable by current materials options Conventional device technologies cannot be pushed much farther Current information processing technologies are approaching their limit, and cannot support truly autonomous space systems Microspacecraft Quantum-limited sensors Biochem lab-on-a-chip Medical autonomy AI partners in space Evolvable space systems Ultra-large apertures Solar sails Gossamer spacecraft Air/launch/space vehicles Human habitats in space Self-sensing systems Strength per Mass Size per Mass Future Challenges

Overarching Constraints: 

Overarching Constraints Performance in Extreme Environments (Radiation, Temperature, Zero Gravity, Vacuum) Frugal Power Availability High Degree of Autonomy and Reliability Human “Agents” and “Amplifiers”

Impact of Nanotechnology on NASA Missions: 

New and Powerful computing technologies Onboard computing systems for future autonomous intelligent vehicles; powerful, compact, low power consumption, radiation hard High performance computing (Tera- and Peta-flops) processing satellite data integrated space vehicle design tools climate modeling Smart, compact devices and sensors Ultimate sensitivity to analytes Discrimination against varying and unknown backgrounds Ultrasmall probes for harsh environments Advanced miniaturization of all systems Microspacecraft/Micro-Nanorovers “Thinking” Spacecraft with nanoelectronics/nanosensors Size reduction through multifunctional, smart nanomaterials Impact of Nanotechnology on NASA Missions

Ten Most Significant Benefits: 

Ten Most Significant Benefits Reduce vehicle structural weight by a factor of 3 Application Tailored Multi-functional Materials Thermal Protection and Management Reliable Reconfigurable Radiation/Fault Tolerant Nano-electronics On-board Life Support Systems On-Board Human Health Management 30% lighter EVA Suit Micro-craft (< 1 kg) with functionality of current 100 kg spacecraft for science and inspection Ultra-Sensitive and Selective Sensing Modeling Fabrication Processes for Nano-to-Micro Interfaces

Multi-Scale Simulation Hierarchy: 

Multi-Scale Simulation Hierarchy An essential ingredient in the future of nanotechnology is the design of new nanoscale devices and test of their performance before experimental prototyping and manufacturing This requires that we base simulations of nanoscale systems on First Principles This requires a multiscale strategy in which the information from quantum mechanics is captured in coarser levels to define the essential parameters Time femtosec picosec nanosec microsec seconds hours years minutes Nanotechnology Engineering Design Unit Process Design Finite Element Analysis Process Simulation Mesoscale Dynamics Molecular Dynamics Quantum Mechanics Electrons => Atoms => Segments => Grids W. A. Goddard: Caltech


Context “Nanotechnology” is broad term encompassing the manipulation and control of matter on the scale of 1 nm to 100 nm to achieve desired properties and behavior The significance of nano-scale technology is in the unique and exceptional properties that are present at that scale Nano-scale technology is pervasive and affects essentially all areas of technology important to NASA New skills, talents, and research and development methodology are required to fully benefit from the capabilities arising from technology at the nano-scale It is strategically important for NASA to exploit and benefit from rapidly emerging discoveries at the nano-scale

Planetary Environments: 

Planetary Environments

Microcraft & Constellations: 

Goals Reduce mass of microcraft by factor of ~100 in 10 years and ~1000 in 20 years, while maintaining full functional capability at no increase in cost/kg Fly "Constellations" of 100s-1000s microcraft and enable them to managed by a few (maybe only one) human operators Value to Space Systems Much greater capability at much lower cost Distributed robust monitoring and inspection for safer operations Simultaneous dense sampling of phenomena for exploration and accurate modeling of Earth, planetary, and space environments State of the Art Commercial satellites (e.g. Orbcom) @ 40Kg Sojourner Mars Rover @ 11.5 kg "Picosats" (some MEMS) 0.27 to 1 Kg flown on expendable and STS vehicles Variety of lab prototype vehicles at 10-100 g, all with sensing, computation, communications, and actuation Hard Problems • Systems-level design and integration of nanotechnology into single microcraft and constellations for ≥ 10X performance over SOA: power, propulsion, communications, computing, sensing, thermal control, guidance/navigation, etc. • Assuring durability and endurance, especially in harsh environments • Increase on-board computational performance by ~100X for self-directed, intelligent operations Microcraft & Constellations

Nano-sensors and Instrumentations: 

Goals Enable missions with nano-sensors: Remote sensing Viewing there Vehicle health and performance Getting there Geochemical and astrobiological research Being there Manned space flight Living there Value to Space Systems 10X to 100X smaller, lower power & cost Tailorable for very high quantum efficiency Tailorable for space durability in harsh environments Improved capabilities at comparable or reduced cost Mission enabling technology State of the Art (all ground based) Designer bio/chemical sensors Characteristic Properties of Molecules Functionalized structures (CNTs, etc.) Assembly of nano-structures Template development Electro-static control Nano-fluidics/separation tools Hard Problems • Band-gap engineered materials • Control Atomic layers of substrates • Template pattern controls • Dark current reductions • Readout electronics • Assembly of large arrays • Modeling, simulation and testing • Upward integration into macro-systems Nano-sensors and Instrumentations


Goals Reliable, consistent, on-demand production of durable nanomaterials to support Space Missions: Control of morphology and structure over all length scales (nm to m’s) Scalability to practical quantities Ability to produce materials with resources on other planets Long-term (years) durability in severe environments Value to Aeronautic and Space Systems 5-fold increase in specific strength and stiffness over conventional composites Integral power generation, storage and self-actuation with a total aerial weight of 0.8Kg/m2 & 1.0 kw/kg power generation Material with near zero H2 permeability Electrode materials for reversible fuel cells Life Support: catalysts /absorptive materials for efficient, low volume environmental revitalization 50% lighter TPS and radiation shielding 10X higher thermal conductors (EVA suits, habitats, etc) State of the Art Self assembly & biomimetic processes enable micron scale structure control – need control over 100’s of meters Single wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) production at 100 gram/day – need precise control of length and chirality CNT doped polymers and fibers have been produced with high strength and electrical conductivity – need to scale to >100m Polymer cross-linked aerogels produced with 300X the strength of conventional aerogels – need to scale to >10m2 Hard Problems Ability to reliably and consistently control functional material synthesis and assembly from nano to macro scales Understand and counteract effects of long term exposure in complex/extreme environments on materials durability and properties Understand/model/predict nanoscale phenomena Nanomaterials


Goals Millimeter and sub-millimeter size robots 3D nanoassembly and nanomanufacturing Self-reconfigurable miniature robots Controlling biosystems Hybrid (biotic/abiotic) robots Cooperative networks of micro-robots Atomic and molecular scale manufacturing Design and simulation tools for nano-robots Value to Space Systems In-space (CEV, space station, Hubble telescope, & satellites) and planetary inspection, maintenance, and repair Searching for life on planets (retrieving and analyzing samples) Astronaut health monitoring Assembly and construction Manufacturing on-demand Microcraft State of the Art Miniature Micro/Nano-Robots: Centimeter scale autonomous robots; Chemically powered bio-motor actuation; Endoscopic micro-capsules; MEMS solar cells powered micro-robots; Reconfigurable mini-robots Micro/Nano-Manipulation: Scanning Probe Microscope based nanomanipulation; 3D micro-assembly; Optical tweezers and dielectrophoretic bio-manipulation; Virtual Reality human-machine user interfaces Hard Problems Mobility: Surface climbing, walking, hopping, flying, swimming; Smart nanomaterials for adhesion, multi-functionality, … Power: Harvesting; Novel miniature power systems (e.g. chemical energy); Wireless Actuation: CNT, polymer, electrostatic, thermal, SMA, and piezo actuators Complexity: New programming methods for controlling massive numbers of robots Nanorobotics

Mission Needs/Opportunity Timeline for Nanotechnology: 

Mission Needs/Opportunity Timeline for Nanotechnology 2005 2025 2015 2035 Humans to the Moon Mars robotic missions (every 2 years) Robotic Missions to Extreme Environments After Mars (Outer Solar System, Venus …) 10m class Vis/IR/Submm aperture 50m class Vis/IR/Submm aperture High Altitude Long Endurance Aircraft 1st Generation Zero Emissions Aircraft “Planetary Aircraft” (e.g. Mars) Large Scale Interferometry (Planetary Finding) Very Long Baseline Interferometry (Planetary Imaging) Greatly miniaturized robotic systems:1 kg-sats/robots with the capability of today’s 100 kg systems (Mars and other planetary bodies: in orbit, atmospheres. surfaces, sub-surfaces) 10 X lighter Robotic Systems Large, lightweight highly stable optical and RF apertures and metering structures (~10m) Extremely large, lightweight, highly stable optical and RF apertures and metering structures (~10-100 m) Thermal control; lightweight, low power radiation hard/tolerant electronics and avionics; advanced active/detection; lightweight high efficiency power systems; high strength-to-weight structures and thermal protection systems 1st Generation: Power Generation/Storage Life Support Astronaut Health Mgt Thermal Mgt. High Strength, Lt. Wt./Multifunctional Structures Radiation Protection, Advanced TPS 2nd Generation Power Generation/Storage Life Support Astronaut Health Mgt Thermal Mgt. High Strength/Multifunctional Structures Lightweight Fuel Tanks, Radiators (Nuclear Prop.) Lt. Weight High Strength Structures Low Power Avionics Lightweight, High Efficiency Electrical Power Systems (Regenerative Fuel Cells) Humans to Mars Sun-Earth Observing Constellations Deep Space Constellations (X-Ray Telescope, Earth’s Magnetosphere,..)

Towards Convergence: 

EXPLORATION ROBOTICS ROBOTICS ROBOTICS HUMANS ROBOTICS & HUMANS Climate History Sample Selection Ancient Water Validate Paleo-Life Resources Extant Life? Reconnaissance Site Selection Sample Selection Return Sample Field Studies Deep Drilling Exploring Mars DISCOVERY Towards Convergence

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