Bioinformatics school codes

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Slide1: 

Professor Michael Sternberg Head of Bioinformatics Imperial College London

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Bring a working scientist into a school A Royal Society Partnership Award to Mathilda Marks-Kennedy School The Royal Society was set up in 1660 to help science and has been very important ever since.

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Science Museum

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Many scientists work in laboratories My team just use computers to crack the code of biology

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Today Writing in code How people at Bletchley Park broke the German codes during World War II How computers were invented to help crack codes Next week Bletchley Park Visit Two weeks time How Biology uses codes

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Here is a way to send a secret message Write with a special pen on paper Give your message to your friend Your friend has a special torch and can read the message.

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If someone else gets the paper, they could also a the special torch and read your message!!! Not the best idea!!!

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1) First two people meet and agree on the code

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2) - The first person can then write the message in code and send it to the second person

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3) The second person gets the message and then changes the code back to the message. Changing the code back is called ‘deciphering’.

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Message Alphabet: abcdefgh…xyz Code Alphabet: ABCDEFGH…XYZ

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Message Alphabet: abcdefgh…xyz Code Alphabet: ZABCDEFGH…XY

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Message Alphabet: abcdefgh…xyz Code Alphabet: YZABCDEFGH…X

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Letter in message Letter in code

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First two people meet and agree on the code Let’s use the shift code and when the real letter is ‘a’ the code will be ‘Y’

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2) - The first person can then write the message in code and send it to the second person Message : hello Code: : FCJJM

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3) The second person gets the message and then changes the code back to the message. Changing the code back is called ‘deciphering’. Code: :FCJJM Message : hello

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Code: L ORYH LFH FUHDP Message:

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Code: L ORYH LFH FUHDP Message: a

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Code: L ORYH LFH FUHDP Message: a dgns auw ujwse

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Code: L ORYH LFH FUHDP Message:

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Code: L ORYH LFH FUHDP Message: i

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Code: L ORYH LFH FUHDP Message: i love ice cream

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Code: LORYHLFHFUHDP in the code there are 3H, 2F, 2L most common letters in ENGLISH is E often used are: A, H, I, N,O,R,T

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Code: LORYHLFHFUHDP Message: i?o?ei?e?rea?

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Code: LORYHLFHFUHDP Message: iloveicecream

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Message Alphabet: abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Code Alphabet: ZEGNALFDROHTUCBPJIMKSQWVYX Scramble up alphabet But still can be cracked by guessing that code letters that are used often are for letters like E in English

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In World War II, the Germans used a machine called the Enigma Machine to make very clever codes The Enigma Machine used several wheels to scramble up the message

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Type in message Coded letters light up Wheels

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These codes were cracked here in World War II

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First they built a machine with wheels and lights called a ‘Bombe’.

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Later they built the very first computer which was called ‘Colossus’.

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We have learnt: shifting or scrambling the alphabet makes codes codes can be cracked by hard work the first computer was built by the British to crack the Enigma code in World War II.

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Mrs Ben Ze’ev for suggesting this partnership The Royal Society for providing funds Dr Suhail Islam (Imperial College London ) for the wheels and the movie My daughter for advice on what I should say and how I should make the slides.

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