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Alliances identify nations belonging to the Entente Powers identify nations belonging to the Central Powers 2. Geography & War What geographic advantages did the Central Powers have? Why is Russia virtually isolated? How would this affect her? Why is the Ottoman Empire exposed to Allied attack? What problems relative to sea movement do Britain & Germany have?Map 28.3: World War II(page 694): Map 28.3: World War II (page 694) 1. Limits In what year were the Axis gains the greatest? What areas did which power control: Germany & Italy? Japan? 2. Geography & War How did geography hurt the Soviet Union, China & Great Britain? What type of war did geography force the U.S. & Japan to fight? Why would the Mediterranean Sea be so critical to Great Britain?Map 28.5: The Cold War(page 700): Map 28.5: The Cold War (page 700) 1. Alliances What countries were allied with the U.S.? The Soviet Union? What nations were neutral? Why are Yugoslavia & China critical to both alliances? 2. Geo-political & military considerations How does location help & hurt the American-led alliance? The Soviet-led alliance? Why are Cuba & Nicaragua threats to the United States? How are South Yemen & Ethiopia threats to world trade? Why would the invasion of Korea threaten the U.S.? How would revolts in Eastern Europe threaten the Soviet Union? Why is the Middle East critical to both alliances?Slide5: Westerners prior to 1914 - civilization make constant advances - bring enlightenment to other world areas international organizations think internationally rising nationalism - Europe World War I militarism alliances imperialism nationalism Balkans assassination Archduke Franz FerdinandSlide7: Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front British navy vs German submarines trench warfare government growth U.S. involvement Africa - move to seize German colonies Outside EuropeSlide9: Asia – Japan & China join Allies Middle East - Ottoman Empire w/ Germany, falls apart - British sponsor Arab national movements Russia End of war - 1918 Treaty of Versailles no one satisfied with it sets stage for insecure futureSlide10: League of Nations War weakened Europe 10 million die - young men gone - industry & agriculture destroyed government debt, inflation colonial world starts talking independence changes in Middle East economic reverberationsSlide11: Great Depression 1930s impact of WWI recession in Europe early 1920s overproduction, inflation, nationalist protectionism economic instability stock market crash 1929 - loans called in - investment capital disappears - industrial production fallsSlide12: worldwide impact Soviet Union isolated – still industrializing western markets cannot absorb imports Latin America – government more involved in planning Japan – depended on exports - increased suspicion of west West – welfare programs, radical social ideas global extent of Great Depression – impossible for any national policy to restore prosperitySlide13: World War II beginnings before 1939 Great Depression - rise of ultranationalistic groups Japan - military regime - invade Manchuria - withdraw from League of Nations Germany - Nazi Party – aggressive foreign policy - Hitler takes power legally in 1933 - create war machine authoritarian regimesSlide14: Steps to War Germany re-arms - stops reparation payments - occupies Rhineland Britain & France do nothing Italy - Ethiopia Spanish civil war Hitler annexes Austria, Czechoslovakia Munich – Britain & France accept in return for peace promises 1939 – Germany allies with RussiaSlide15: Hitler & Russia invade Poland Britain & France declare war on Germany 1940 – Germany, Italy, Japan alliance European powers unpreparedSlide16: Japan moves into Indochina, Malaya, Burma U.S. withholds raw materials Japan attack Pearl Harbor - 1941 U.S. gains initiative in 1942Slide17: Germany by 1940 holds most of Northern Europe Italy takes Yugoslavia & Greece North Africa Britain controls airspace 1941 – shifts - Germany invades Russia - U.S. joins war 1942 - Allies push Axis back in Northern Africa - Russians begin offensive - Italy invaded by Allies 1945 – Germany & Japan surrenderSlide18: Human costs Holocaust air strikes atomic bombings 35 million die Settlements avoid problems of WWI U.S., Soviet Union, Great Britain decide postwar fate of Europe Teheran 1943Slide19: United Nations Yalta - 1945 Germany divided into 4 sections Eastern Europe left under Soviet domination Potsdam - 1945 Japan occupied by U.S. Korea freed but divided China – civil warSlide20: Cold War rivalries in Europe Soviets install communist governments in Eastern Europe U.S. responds by helping Western Europe Marshall Plan Germany becomes focal point of Cold War - Berlin NATO Warsaw PactSlide21: arms race Korean War global Cold War – supporting allies on all continents Cuban Missile Crises Vietnam 1970s – arms limitations - European colonies in Asia & Africa independent 1980s – Soviets cannot afford to keep up 1991 - Soviet Union dissolvesDates of African Independence: Dates of African IndependenceSlide23: 1990s – 2000s U.S. top militarily regional conflicts supranational trade blocks – EU, NAFTA more private competition & free markets move to democracySlide24: ██ presidential republics, full presidential system ██ presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliament ██ presidential republics, semi-presidential system ██ parliamentary republics ██ parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch does not personally exercise power ██ constitutional monarchies in which the monarch personally exercises power, often alongside a weak parliament ██ absolute monarchies ██ states whose constitutions grant only a single party the right to govern ██ military dictatorships “true” electoral democracies Free (green) – Partly Free (tan) – Not Free (burgundy) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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