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Lois McDermott, Ph.D.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Washington: 

Sexual Assault andamp; Coercion of Adults Lois McDermott, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of Washington McDermott c Copyright 1996. All rights reserved

Continuum of Coercion: 

Continuum of Coercion death - self, others threaten life - self, others weapons of deadly force physical force, strength threat of injury incapacitation - drugs entrapment emotional threat trickery pleading nagging pouting withdrawal Sexual Assault 70% acquaintance lover, spouse 30% strangers Sexual Manipulation 100% acquaintance lover, spouse Consent verbal request, verbal consent

Slide3: 

Sexual Assault Rape

legal definition:USc: 

legal definition:USc engaging in unwanted, non consensual sexual intercourse (penetration, however slight, of vagina, mouth, anus w/ body part or object) by any of the following means:

legal definition:US: 

forcible compulsion - weapons, physical strength, threats of physical harm w/ means to victim or other inability to flee - disability, abduction, isolation, restraint, imprisonment inability to consent: unconscious, mental impairment, below legal age of consent consent is absent - when lack of consent is expressed via words or conduct legal definition:US

legal definition:US: 

new trend failure to get explicit, verbal consent (NJ case) Does s/he really want this? - not 'can I get away with this?' legal definition:US

Explaining the Cause of Rape: 

Explaining the Cause of Rape

explanatory models of rape: 

'discredited' models female precipitated: 'temptress'; loose women root of male loss of control ('what was she wearing, what was she doing in a place like that') socially aberrant - sociopathy - ('you’d have to be crazy to do something like that') explanatory models of rape

explanatory models of rape: 

current models sociobiology: hyperactive male sex drive - 'sex-aggression' ('testosterone poisoning') feminist: gender role dysfunction - hyperextension of male gender role ('rape is not about sex, it’s about power' ) psychosexual: developmental disorder - vandalized love maps ('paraphilic attachment styles') explanatory models of rape

explanatory models of rape: 

REPRESSIVE RESTRICTIVE PERMISSIVE SUPPORTIVE patriarchal violation of property rights (father’s, husband’s) loose (emancipated) F temptress no rape of wife by husband egalitarian misuse of power violation of the victim’s rights no blaming the victim spousal rape PROCREATIONAL RELATIONAL RECREATIONAL sex - sex + CELIBATE CHASTE ACTIVE EXPRESSIVE explanatory models of rape

cultural perspectives: 

cultural perspectives male offenders in vast majority of cultures (some cultures women are the rapists) rape-prone cultures glorify aggression as a desirable trait (warriors) inferior social and economical status for F sex-segregated roles for M and F equate masc. w/ toughness, fem. w/ weakness

cultural perspectives: 

low rape cultures value nurturance and cooperation in males allow M and F to share power promote nonviolent conflict resolution respect for nature and the environment supports the 'feminist' theory of rape cultural perspectives

Sexual Assault: 

Sexual Assault In an Affectionate Relationship

sexual assault : US: 

sexual assault : US Known Offender (70% lover, spouse; 19% of F pop) recurrent ongoing battery victim: blamed shamed, lack support offender: rarely prosecuted punished Stranger Offender (30% no relation; 8% of F pop) one-time victim: believed, excused offender: more prosecuted, punished type of coercion death weapons force endanger threat incapacity entrapment

Continuum of Coercion: 

Continuum of Coercion death - self, others threaten life - self, others weapons of deadly force physical force, strength threat of injury incapacitation - drugs entrapment emotional threat trickery pleading nagging pouting withdrawal Sexual Assault 70% acquaintance lover, spouse 30% strangers Sexual Manipulation 100% acquaintance lover, spouse Consent verbal request, verbal consent

MaritalRape: 

Marital Rape

marital rape: US: 

marital rape: US 14% F raped by spouses; 43% felt coerced by non-violent means 37 states include marital rape in rape statutes 13 states (25%) explicitly exclude marital rape (1994) Bobbitt - Virginia statute excludes marital rape

historic rights of marriage: 

historic rights of marriage Man and wife are one person in the law Wife’s body is husband’s property, in his custody (can not flee) Wife’s possessions belong to husband Father has legal custody of children Wife has no entitlement to property of the marriage (no right to support) Married woman has no separate standing in the law (no vote, suits, contracts) No right to divorce except adultery (witnesses)

rights of relationship?: 

rights of relationship? Is a relationship a non-negotiable license for sex? Is participation in one type of sexual activity implied consent for all types of sexual activity? To love (have sex) and obey?

DateRape: 

Date Rape

Date Rape: US College Students: 

Date Rape: US College Students hetero dates (32 campuses) forced coitus 15% 9% forced noncoitus 25-59% 9% homo dates (1 campus) 'forced sex' 31% 12%

Slide22: 

hetero dates (32 campuses) rape 2.5-15% 4% attempted rape 25% 4% forced noncoitus 43% 8% incapacitation 37% no data homo dates (1 campus) 'forced sex' 6% 8% Date Rape: US College Students

Finkelhor Model: Acquaintance Rape: 

Finkelhor Model: Acquaintance Rape motivation prove self (masculinity, heterosexuality, self-esteem maintain control, power over property sex/aggression paraphilia

Finkelhor Model: Acquaintance Rape: 

overcome internal inhibitors belief in rape myths - 'she wanted it' sense of entitlement - 'she owes me' meting out justice - 'she deserves it' Finkelhor Model: Acquaintance Rape

Finkelhor Model: Acquaintance Rape: 

overcome external inhibitions no social barriers - patriarchy, marriage license male dominance structures - military, sport male social bonds - pressure, tolerance Finkelhor Model: Acquaintance Rape

Finkelhor Model: Acquaintance Rape: 

selecting easy victims defining desirable feminine traits based on passivity select vulnerability - financial, emotional small physical size, lack physical strength, skill Finkelhor Model: Acquaintance Rape

College Date Rapists:Beliefs and Behaviors: 

College Date Rapists: Beliefs and Behaviors peer pressure to have sex high low satisfaction w/ frequency low fine trickery as sex tactic 80-90% 16-25% (drugs, alcohol, guilt, false love) enhanced peer status for rape 54-81% 16-40% (pick-up, tease, high status F) gang-bang participant 50% 2% belief rape is justified in 86% 19% some circumstances

SexualManipulation: 

Sexual Manipulation

Sexual Manipulation US College Students: 

Sexual Manipulation US College Students hetero victims (32 campuses) 'unwanted sex' 85% 63% hetero offenders (1 campus) false love 41% no data emotion. manip. 73% 52%

The Sexual Dance: 

The Sexual Dance non-verbal communication assumed hierarchy of sex acts shared ground rules vs. 'rights' males: testing the limits; females: setting the brakes motive for having sex - love, pleasure; power, ego trip

The Sexual Dance: 

holding hands embracing smooching clothed caressing deep kissing clothed, genital caressing unclothed, non genital caressing unclothed, genital caressing stim. to produce arousal stim. genit. w/ hand stim. genit. w/ mouth penetrate vagina penetrate anus stim. to produce orgasm stim. genit. w/ hand stim. genit. w/ mouth penetrate vagina penetrate anus 1st 2nd 3rd Home The Sexual Dance

healthy partner sex: 

healthy partner sex egalitarian equivalent psychosexual development equivalent power, knowledge equivalent status consensual informed consent free of coercion retain right to say no at any point responsible equivalent benefits equivalent risks

Impact of Rape: 

Impact of Rape

Sexual Assault of Males: 

Sexual Assault of Males by heterosexual males prisons, military, clubs, gangs by homosexual males 'pick-up dates' - 7% by females usually more than one assailant, use of weapon society’s reaction denial, disbelief, ridicule, blaming, minimization

Impact of Sexual Assault: 

Impact of Sexual Assault on female survivors on male survivors on men in women’s lives on relations between M and F on females in society

Prevention of Sexual Victimization : 

Prevention of Sexual Victimization by potential victims by institutions in society by you as an individual by us collectively

Pornography&Sexual Assault: 

Pornography andamp; Sexual Assault

Pornography and Rape: The Need for Research: 

Pornography and Rape: The Need for Research 1970 Commission report - out of date sexually explicit materials are more widely available more sex education, information in society standards of pornography have changed substantially regular media very sexualized

Pornography and Rape: The Need for Research: 

Pornography and Rape: The Need for Research 1986 Commission report - poor science biased committee, a priori decision; lack of consensus biased sampling of materials misinterpretation of existing research; no empirical studies poorly funded, staffed, hastily conducted

Pornography & Sexual Aggression: 

Pornography andamp; Sexual Aggression Stimulus Response Sex Violence acceptance of rape, rape myths, aggression toward F explicit (X) graphic elevated implied (R) graphic elevated none (G) graphic elevated explicit (X) none no change implied (R) none no change none (G) none no change

MaleRapists: 

Male Rapists

Convicted Rapists: 

Convicted Rapists Aggressive Aim, Misogyny (43%) inflict pain, humiliation, dominance on F macho, Rambo M, married womanizer excessive force no erection, orgasm - in some cases Impulse, Antisocial (23%) general criminal activity typical, average male, married, family sexually arouse - rape is a 'lark'

Convicted Rapists: 

Convicted Rapists Sexual Aim, Sexual Mastery (25%) inflict pain, humiliation, dominance on F macho, Rambo M, married womanizer excessive force no erection, orgasm - in some cases Sex/aggression Fusion, Paraphilia (8%) S/M ritual, compulsion seems like average, married, family sexual arousal, orgasm from 'pain' of F