Attitudes toward Nature

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Attitudes toward Nature: 

Attitudes toward Nature New HER Process

Slide2: 


What are the attitudes we have toward nature?: 

What are the attitudes we have toward nature?

Dominant Social Paradigm (DSP): 

Dominant Social Paradigm (DSP) Historically, the dominant attitude toward nature is that of: Cornucopia Endless Bounty Growth is Good Belief in Progress Faith in Science andamp; Technology Lots of Resources for Human Use

New Environmental Paradigm (NEP): 

New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Current concerns that the old paradigm hurts the environment, it is not endless bounty, growth should not be the driving force The earth is like a spaceship There are ecological limits Must balance natural and human needs Idea of Human Domination is challenged Concerns over ecological catastrophe

Ecological Paradigms: 

Ecological Paradigms There has been a dramatic social shift in ecological values

Ecological Paradigms: 

Ecological Paradigms

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Utilitarian: practical andamp; material exploitation of nature

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Doministic: Mastery, physical control and dominance over Nature

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Negativistic: Fear, aversion, alienation from nature

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Ecologistic-Scientific: Systematic study of structure, function and relationship in nature

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Aesthetic: Physical beauty and appeal of nature

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Naturalistic: direct experience and exploration of nature

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Moralistic: Spiritual reverence and ethical concern for nature

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Humanistic: Strong emotional attachment and ‘love’ for aspects of nature

Typology of Environmental Values: 

Typology of Environmental Values Symbolic: Use of nature for language and thought

How to these values relate to our population?: 

How to these values relate to our population?

Ecological Value Variables: Gender: 

Ecological Value Variables: Gender Women tend to agree with NEP values, especially if they have young children Men agree more with DSP values

Ecological Value Variables: Education: 

Ecological Value Variables: Education The higher the level of education, the more likely someone is to subscribe to NEP

Ecological Value Variables: Knowledge: 

Ecological Value Variables: Knowledge The more knowledge one has, the more likely they are to carry NEP values

Ecological Value Variables: Personality: 

Ecological Value Variables: Personality The more mature, well adjusted, stronger values, good social relationships, more social, more responsible someone is the more likely they are to subscribe to NEP

Ecological Value Variables: Age: 

Ecological Value Variables: Age Young adults (18-30) favor NEP Age 50 and over favor DSP

Ecological Value Variables: Age: 

Ecological Value Variables: Age How do values change across ages? 2nd grade: negativistic, dominionistic, utilitarian 8th-11th grade: decrease in above and increase in naturalistic, moralistic, ecologistic

Ecological Value Variables: Age: 

Ecological Value Variables: Age Why do kids get ‘greener’ as they get older? Moral development, move from egocentrism

Where do these values and attitudes come from?: 

Where do these values and attitudes come from?

Value Origins - DSP: 

Value Origins - DSP Literature - what we read and listen to. Fairy tales, movies with DSP themes in them trouble in the forest, evil nature ‘bare necessities - nature provides

Value Origins - DSP: 

Value Origins - DSP Art - How is nature depicted? Medieval andamp; Renaissance

Value Origins - DSP: 

Value Origins - DSP Religion: Judeo/Christian - Genesis, Fill the earth and subdue it rule over the fish and the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground, domination, anthropocentrism

Value Origins - DSP: 

Value Origins - DSP American Frontier Experience: belief in progress, abundance of resources, wild west, dominate animals, growth and expansion

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Value Origins - DSP: 

Value Origins - DSP Technology: Farming technology distances us from the environment

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Value Origins - NEP: 

Value Origins - NEP Literature: Transcendentalists in Literature Nash (1982) Wilderness and American Mind. Yale. Tuan (1979) Topophilia. Prentice-Hall. Deval and Sessins (1990) Deep Ecology

Value Origins - NEP: 

Value Origins - NEP Art: Hudson River School Sierra Club Ansel Adams

Value Origins - NEP: 

Value Origins - NEP Policy: United States the first country in the world to establish national parks

Value Origins - NEP: 

Value Origins - NEP Activities: most popular recreational activity in the US is gardening

Value Origins - NEP: 

Value Origins - NEP Religion: Stewardship Reverence for life of all kinds Feng Shui - balance, harmony, environmental elements TAO and Buddhist focus on one with nature Native American beliefs in Earth as our mother

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Why is the planet in danger?: 

Why is the planet in danger?

Why is the Environment in Danger?: 

Why is the Environment in Danger?

Population: 

Population

Population: 

Population

Population: 

Population Exponential population growth

Population: 

Population 'Spaceship Earth' - is there a carrying capacity? (Malthus) increases in population are good at first, but then begins to reduce resources When humans are pressed, they solve with technology

Consumption / Lifestyle: 

Consumption / Lifestyle The problem is not necessarily the number of people, but multiply those numbers by the pressure we put on the environment America uses PILES more energy per person than any other country Throw away society Pollute Use of resources (water, land, oil, etc) is huge in US

Consumption / Lifestyle: 

Consumption / Lifestyle

Annual Per Capita Energy Consumption 1992: 

Annual Per Capita Energy Consumption 1992

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

Consumption/Lifestyle: 

Consumption/Lifestyle

How do we change environmental values and promote positive action?: 

How do we change environmental values and promote positive action?

Slide63: 

Problem: Carrying Capacity Overpopulation Lifestyle (energy/resource use) Solution Change Attitudes Change Behaviors Political/Economic Context

Promoting Change: 

Promoting Change Environmental Education Programs critical importance of active, hands on, interactive involvement - more effective in changing attitudes Should offer: Knowledge Control, Self Efficacy Modeling Active Involvement

Promoting Change: 

Promoting Change Experience in the Natural World Level of experience in the natural world is correlated to positive ecological values and positive ecological action/activism

Attitudes do not equal Action: 

Attitudes do not equal Action What is the link between ecological values and behavior?

Slide67: 

Environmental Knowledge ie. Fossil fuels produce CO2 in the atmosphere when burned. Environmental Values ie. all things, whether humans, animals, plants or stones have the right to exist. Behavioral Intention ie. I would prefer to drive only if absolutely necessary.

Links Between Attitudes & Behavior: 

Links Between Attitudes andamp; Behavior Recycling - modest correlation Recycling Attidute Recycling Behavior .36

Links Between Attitudes & Behavior: 

Links Between Attitudes andamp; Behavior What other factors become important in translating attitudes into action?

Links Between Attitudes & Behavior: 

Knowledge Values Behavioral Intentions Behaviors Control Links Between Attitudes andamp; Behavior

Knowledge: 

Knowledge The best predictor of fertility rate = the education of women Less babies with higher levels of education

Knowledge: 

Knowledge Teenage Pregnancy Example

Control: 

Control You can have the intention to carry something out, but do you have the control, are you able to do it? Are contraceptives available? Is there mass transit?

Control: 

Control Teenage pregnancy is reduced when education and contraception (control) is available

Links Between Attitudes & Behavior: 

Links Between Attitudes andamp; Behavior If you have the intention (knowledge andamp; values) and the ability (control), the behavioral correlation is very high Environmental Knowledge Environmental Values Behavioral Intentions Ecological Behavior Control

Links Between Attitudes & Behavior: 

Links Between Attitudes andamp; Behavior Political Activism is high when you have the values and intention plus the belief that you can make a difference Environmental Knowledge Environmental Values Behavioral Intentions Ecological Behavior Control

Constraints in Control: Social Traps: 

Constraints in Control: Social Traps

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