WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

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WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE:

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

About William Shakespeare:

About William Shakespeare William Shakespeare   (26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616 )  was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist .  He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon ".  His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays ,  154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright .

Plays:

Plays Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career .  Some attributions, such as Titus Andronicus and the early history plays, remain controversial, while The Two Noble Kinsmen and the lost  Cardenio  have well-attested contemporary documentation. Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition.

Poems:

Poems In 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of plague, Shakespeare published two narrative poems on erotic themes, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece . He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley , Earl of Southampton. In Venus and Adonis, an innocent Adonis rejects the sexual advances of Venus; while in The Rape of Lucrece , the virtuous wife  Lucrece  is raped by the lustful Tarquin .  Influenced by  Ovid‘s  Metamorphoses ,  the poems show the guilt and moral confusion that result from uncontrolled lust .  Both proved popular and were often reprinted during Shakespeare's lifetime. A third narrative poem, A Lover's Complaint, in which a young woman laments her seduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition of the Sonnets in 1609. Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare wrote A Lover's Complaint. Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects.The Phoenix and the Turtle, printed in Robert Chester's 1601 Love's Martyr, mourns the deaths of the legendary phoenix and his lover, the faithful turtle dove. In 1599, two early drafts of sonnets 138 and 144 appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim, published under Shakespeare's name but without his permission .

Influence:

Influence Shakespeare's work has made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature. In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of  characterisation , plot, language, and genre .  Until Romeo and Juliet, for example, romance had not been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy .  Soliloquies had been used mainly to convey information about characters or events; but Shakespeare used them to explore characters' minds .  His work heavily influenced later poetry. The Romantic poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success. Critic George Steiner described all English verse dramas from Coleridge to Tennyson as "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes.

Works:

Works Shakespeare's works include the 36 plays printed in the First Folio of 1623, listed according to their folio classification as comedies, histories, and tragedies .  Two plays not included in the First Folio, The Two Noble Kinsmen and Pericles, Prince of Tyre , are now accepted as part of the canon, with today's scholars agreeing that Shakespeare made major contributions to the writing of both .  No Shakespearean poems were included in the First Folio . In the late 19th century, Edward Dowden classified four of the late comedies as romances, and though many scholars prefer to call them tragicomedies, Dowden's term is often used .  In 1896, Frederick S. Boas coined the term "problem plays" to describe four plays: All's Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida and Hamlet . "Dramas as singular in theme and temper cannot be strictly called comedies or tragedies", he wrote. "We may, therefore, borrow a convenient phrase from the theatre of today and class them together as Shakespeare's problem plays ."  The term, much debated and sometimes applied to other plays, remains in use, though Hamlet is definitively classed as a tragedy .

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