Curriculum Development

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Curriculum Development:

Curriculum Development Welcome ! -The nature and scope of curriculum development


Basic Concepts of Curriculum Definition of “ Curriculum ” Curriculum is derived from the Latin word ‘ currere ’ which means “to run”. Based on the said definition, Pinar (1974) highlighted the term “to run” which for the term means to live an experience. Indeed, for many students, the school curriculum is a race to be run, a series of obstacles or hurdles to be passed.


Curriculum may actually be defined in two ways: Prescriptive definitions Descriptive definitions


Prescriptive definitions – provides with what ‘ought’ to happen, and are more often than not take the form of a plan, an intended program, or some kind of expert opinion about what needs to take place in the course of study (Ellis, 2004)


Descriptive definitions- they force thought about the curriculum, “not merely in terms of how things ought to be… but how things are in real classrooms” (Ellis, 2004). Another term that could be used to define the descriptive curriculum is experience. The experienced curriculum provides “glimpses” of the curriculum in action.


It is the “what” of teaching. It is considered as a dynamic process.


Different Points of View of the Curriculum Traditional Points of View Progressive Points of View


Traditional Points of View This point of view is also referred as the Essentialists’ View. According to the Traditionalist point of view: Curriculum is a body of subject matters prepared by the teachers for the students to learn. It is synonymous to the term “course of study” and “syllabus” Curriculum is viewed as a field of study which is made up of its foundations, domains of knowledge as well as research theories and principles. Curriculum is viewed as writte n documents or a plan of action in accomplishing goals.


As viewed by many essentialists… According to Hutchins (1990), curriculum is a “permanent study’ where the rule of grammar, reading, rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized. Bestor (1956) mentioned that the mission of the school should be intellectual training/learning, hence curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of grammar, literature and writing. It should also include mathematics, science, history and foreign language. “Discipline is the sole source of curriculum”.- Joseph Schwab (1984)


2. Progressive Points of View For a progressivist , a listing of school, subjects, syllabi, course of study, and list of courses or specific discipline do not make a curriculum. These can only be called curriculum if the written materials are actualized by the learner. As viewed by progressivist : John Dewey (1999) define curriculum as the total learning experiences of the individual. For Caswell & Campbell (2003), curriculum is all the experiences children have under the guidance of teachers. Smith, S tanley and Shores (1957) described curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.


Marsh & Willis stated that a curriculum as all the experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students. Tanner D. &Tanner, L. (2007) mentioned that the learning experiences and intended outcomes formulated through systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school for the learner’s continuous and willful growth in persona-social competence; the cumulative tradition of organized knowledge .


Points of View on Curriculum Development Curriculum is a dynamic process, this can be inferred from the various definitions and concepts presented. Development connotes changes which are systematic. An improvement for the better means any alteration, modification or improvement of existing condition. To produce positive changes, development should be purposeful, planned and progressive. This is how a curriculum supposed to evolve.


Two Models of Curriculum Development & Concepts Ralph Tyler model: Tyler’s Rationale Four Basic Principles Hilda Taba Model: Grassroots Approach


Ralph Tyler model: Tyler’s Rationale Four Basic Principles He posited four fundamental questions/principles in examining any curriculum in schools. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that is likely to attain these purposes? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not?


Tyler’s model shows that in curriculum development, the following consideration should be made: P urposes of the school. E ducational experiences are related to the purposes. Organization of the experiences. E valuation of the experiences.


2. Hilda Taba Model: Grassroots Approach She improved Tyler’s Rationale by making a linear model. She believed that teachers who teach or implement the curriculum should participate in developing it. Her advocacy was commonly called the Grassroots Approach.


The following are the seven major steps which she presented where teachers could have a major input: Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society Formulation of learning objectives Selection of learning content Organization of learning content Selection of learning experiences Organization of learning activities Determinations of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.


Three Interacting Processes in Curriculum Development: Planning Implementing Evaluating


Allan Glatthorn’s Types of Curriculum Operating in Schools Recommended Curriculum Written Curriculum Taught Curriculum Supported curriculum Assessed/ tested curriculum Learned curriculum Hidden Curriculum


1. Recommended Curriculum- it is the curriculum that is proposed by individual scholars, professional associations, and reform commissions; it also encompasses the curriculum requirements of policy-making groups, such as federal and state governments. It is a curriculum that stresses “ oughtness ” identifying the skills and concepts that ought to be emphasized, according to the perceptions and value systems for the sources


2. Written Curriculum- it appears in school, district, division or country documents. The written curriculum seems intended primarily to ensure that the educational goals of the system are being accomplished; it is a curriculum of control.


3. Taught Curriculum - it is the curriculum, a curriculum that an observer would see in action as the teacher taught.


4. Supported curriculum- it is the curriculum as reflected in and shaped by the resources allocated to support or deliver the curriculum. It includes materials resources that support and help in the implementation of the written curriculum such as textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials, laboratory equipment, playgrounds, zoos, and other facilities.


5. Assessed/ tested curriculum - this refers to a tested or evaluated curriculum. It is the set of learning that are assessed in teacher -made classrooms tests, in district developed curriculum-reference tests, and in standardized test. Assessment tools like pencil-and-paper test, authentic instruments like portfolio are being utilized.


6. Learned curriculum - the term learned curriculum is used here to denote all the changes in values, perceptions, and behavior that occur as a result of school experiences. It usually includes what the student understands, learns, and retains from the both the intentional curriculum and the hidden curriculum. In short, it refers to the learning outcomes achieved by the students, these are indicated by the results of tests and changes in behavior which can either be cognitive, affective or psychomotor


7. Hidden Curriculum- the hidden curriculum, which is sometimes called the “ unstudied curriculum” or the “implicit curriculum,” might best be defined as those aspects of schooling, other than the intentional curriculum, that seem to produce changes in student values, perceptions, and behaviours . Or in a more specific way, it is the unintended curriculum which is not deliberately planned but may modify behaviour or influence learning is made up of peer influence, social environment, physical condition, teacher-learner interaction, mood of the teachers and many other factors.


MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM The curriculum in order to be effective should be based on the fallowing foundations: Sociological and Cultural Philosophical Historical Psychological T he curriculum needs to be securely established in sociological and cultural, philosophical, historical and psychological bases for all-around development of the learner.


Sociological and Cultural Foundations Society and culture relate to curriculum in the sense that they are part of the bases and sources of many curriculum matters and decisions. Whatever changes there are in them, education in general and curriculum in particular are affected. The societal changes/forces affect the school, and hence, the curriculum; these forces include: - Cultural tradition - Textbooks - Laws - Moral Values


It should be based on research and able to address multi-cultural concerns, poverty and the adoption of technology May be a basis for curricular changes/ improvement, upon which curriculum should be based.


The school influences society through its traditional, but important purpose, which is the development among learners of the following: Citizenship: -teaching of cultural heritage -desire to protect and improve society -development of desirable values b. Intellectualism: -essential to having an improved/developed national e conomy c. Vocational Preparation: - developing group oriented -problem solving -abstraction skills among learners


Philosophical Foundations Philosophy gives direction to curriculum in terms of its goals and objectives; The schools underlying beliefs and values have impact on curriculum content and choice of appropriate instructional strategies and learning activities in implementing the curriculum.


Philosophical beliefs that undergrid the curricula of schools: Basic Philosophical System Fundamental Idea(s) Curricular Implications Idealism (Plato) Importance of mind and spirit and of developing them in the learner Reality is in the ideas independent of sense and experience Subject matter/content focused on believing that this is essential to mental and oral development Realism (Aristotle) Truth can be tested/proven Knowledge is derived from sense experience Curriculum is a subject-centered, organized from simple to complex and stressing to mastery of facts and dev’t of process and objective skills and focused to Science and Math


Pragmatism (Dewey, Rousseau, W. James) The world is a world of change; man can know anything within his experience Belief in “Learning by doing” Provisions for direct experiences Activity/ learner-centered Basis-problems of democratic society Perennialism Human beings are rational and their existence remain the same throughout differing environments Subject matter consists of perennial basic education of rational men: history, language, math, logic, science, arts. Existentialism Reality is a matter of individual existence. Focus on conscious awareness of choice. Curriculum stresses activity. Recognition of individual differences Opportunities for making choice


Essentialism There are certain ideas that men should know for social stability Curriculum focused on assimilation of prescribed basic subject matter 3Rs, History, Science, Math Reconstructionism Schools are the chief means for building new social order Curriculum should include subjects that deal with social and cultural crises


Historical Foundations of Curriculum Development It reflects the educational focus prevalent during a particular period or event in Philippine history The focus could be made basis or model for curriculum development of recent years.


Period Characteristics Curricular Focus 1. Pre-Spanish Practical training- satisfy basic needs and to transmit social ideas, beliefs and traditions Broad/not written Reading and writing – study of Koran 2. Spanish Learning of the Christian Doctrine Parochial Schools Vernacular 3. American Public School system 3Rs GMRC Hygiene and sanitation English Instruction 4. Commonwealth Dev’t of moral character Personal discipline Vocational efficiency Filipino as medium Elementary (6years) age 7 Double single sessions Filipino Subject introduced


5. Japanese Prosperity sphere educational objective Diffusion of elementary education Promotion of vocational education Termination of the use of English as a medium of instruction Third Republic- 1935 Constitution 6. New Society National dev’t goals Manpower training High Level professions Self actualization Bilingual Education Policy Dev’t of moral character, self discipline, scientific efficiency Love of country Good citizenship 7. Fourth Republic Rights of all citizen to quality education Teaching of values Emphasis on the basic in the new elementary and secondary schools curriculum


Psychological Foundations Essentials of psychology to education How do we learn (and think)? Why do students respond to teaching? And why do they respond differently?


Psychological and Curriculum Basis of understanding- John Dewey A “screen”- Ralph Tyler Modes of thinking – Jerome Bruner “unifying elements of the learning process. It forms the basis for the methods, materials, and activity of learning… serves… for many curriculum decision”


Major Theories of Learning Behaviorism - stimulus and reinforces Cognitivism - mental operation Humanistic psychology - whole child ( social, psychology, and cognitive development )


Behaviorism Connectionism ( T horndike) Theory Laws of learning ( learning connection) Law of readiness, law of exercise, law of effect Specific stimuli and specific responses Influences Tyler – generalized view of learning Bobbitt and Charters- Specific Habits to be acquired Taba – problem-solving and inquiry-discover Bruner – “ Learning how to learn ”


Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) Theory Stimuli association ( Bell and food ) Key to learning is to condition the child in early years of life to train them what you want them to be


Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Theory Elicited responses- definite stimulus Emitted responses- unrelated identifiable stimulus Key to learning- Operant behavior where the role of stimuli is less definite (emitted); Reinforcement ( Positive and Negative) Lead to acquisition of new operants leading to behavior modification


Observational Learning and Modeling (Bandura) Theory People learn through observation and modeling Key to learning- through models, learner can learn how to perform at sophisticated levels of performance


Hierarchical ( Gagne) Theory The behaviors are based on prerequisite conditions. 8 types of learning: Signal learning, stimulus response, motor chains, verbal association, multiple discrimination, concepts, rules, and problem solving Key to learning- cumulative process of learning; Learning outcomes can be measured


Behaviorism and Curriculum Curriculum should be organized so students experience success in master the subject matter. Behaviorist are very prescriptive and diagnostic in their approach. Rely on step-by-step structured methods of learning. Behaviorism in curriculum includes careful analyzing and sequencing of the learners needs and behaviors.


Cognitivism Theories of Jean Piaget ; Describe cognitive development in terms of stages from birth to maturity; Cognitive Stages of Development; Sensorimotor stage (0-2) Preoperational stage (2-7) Concrete operations stage (7-11) Formal operations (11-onwards); Key to learning – assimilation (incorporation of new experience), accommodation (learning modification and adaptation) and equilibration (balance between previous and later learning)


Influence Tyler’s method : 1. C ontinuity – vertical curriculum 2. Sequence – Spiral curriculum of which past experience builds upon the preceding one 3. Integration – Horizontal curriculum Taba : Curriculum strategies for productive learning. ( Based on assimilation, accommodation and equilibration) Bruner – Acquisition, Transformation, and Evaluation Kholberg – Preconventional (no sense of right or wrong), Conventional ( concerned about what people think), Postconventional ( morality is based on what other people feel)


Theory of Lev Vygotsky Zone of Proximal development Cultural transmission and development Children could, as a result of their interaction with society, actually perform certain cognitive actions prior to arriving at developmental stage Learning precedes development Sociocultural development theory Key to learning -Pedagogy creates learning processes that lead to development - Child is an active agent in his or her educational process

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