BORDER SECURITY

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BORDER SECURITY USING WIRELESS INTEGRATED NETWORK SENSORS: 

BORDER SECURITY USING WIRELESS INTEGRATED NETWORK SENSORS NAMITH KRISHNAN-E S7-IT ROLL NO.16

OVERVIEW: 

OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT & NEED OF WINS IN BORDERS WINS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE WINS NODE ARCHITECTURE WINS MICRO SENSORS ROUTING BETWEEN NODES SHORTEST DISTANCE ALGORITHM WORKING PRINCIPLE WINS DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING DIFFERENT TYPES OF SENSORS IN SECURITY MONITORING TOOLS AND POWER SOURCE SOFTWARE RECENT WORKS IN INDIA AND CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION: 

INTRODUCTION What is WINS ?-distributed sensors Does not require any sort of wiring It provides a new monitoring and control capability. All signals decay with distance so distributed, short range Low cost-Distant sensor requires costly operation It is reasonably faster Low bit rate with low power transceivers Distributed signal processing-decision making-decisions is conveyed in short message packets Used in wide variety of applications Eg.Transportation system, battle field, flight group, border security, biomedicine etc

DEVELOPMENT & NEED OF WINS IN BORDERS: 

DEVELOPMENT & NEED OF WINS IN BORDERS Initiated by DARPA(defence advance research project agency in US LWIM(Low power wireless micro sensors) program began for further development of WINS sponsored by DARPA WINS NG is introduced for wide variety of application WINS was mainly for defence purpose. Secure the border at low cost and high efficiency Some of the threats Illegal immigration, trafficking of drugs,weapons,illicit substances, orgnized crime and terrorism

WINS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: 

WINS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Conventional wireless network-mobile, supported by complex protocol Long range, bit rate over 100 kbps WINS is in contrast with the conventional wireless network Multihope communication provides power reduction and dense node distribution WINS node data is transferred over the asymmetric wireless link to end user using network bridge

WINS NODE ARCHITECTURE: 

WINS NODE ARCHITECTURE Continuous sensing, event detection and identification at low power All operate at micro power levels Event detection Protocol determines which node is alerted Supplies attribute of the event Total system current must be less than 30 micro ampere

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Event recognition may be may be delayed by 10-100 milli- second Traffic pattern is towards the sink through the gateway Uses variable bands of frequency(alarming sensor node-434 MHz frequency bands) WINS perform 3 levels of operation for internet provision to the end users Gateways form the top-level Middle level constitutes the mesh routers End-users mesh node form the lowest level

WINS MICRO SENSORS: 

WINS MICRO SENSORS WINS application requires detection of signal sources in the presence of environmental noise To maximize detection range, sensor sensitivity must be optimized The MEMS(micro electro mechanical systems) technology develop these highly distributed system Sensor is integrated to low temperature, co-fired ceramic substrate by flip-chip bonding This sensor-substrate is a platform for signal processing and communication circuits

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Thermal detector(based on a thin film supported array of Bi-sb thermopile junction) Captures harmonic signals-converted to PSD values-compared with the reference values It provides object presence and motion sensing WINS thermopile operates without the need of voltage or current bias

ROUTING BETWEEN NODES: 

ROUTING BETWEEN NODES Sensed signals routed to the major node Based on shortest distance Traffic is considered, not the distance

SHORTEST DISTANCE ALGORITHM: 

SHORTEST DISTANCE ALGORITHM We find mean packet delay if capacity and average flow are known From the mean delays on all lines we get mean packet delay for the whole subnet

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Mean delay in each line is calculated using the formula Ti =1/(µc- λ Where Ti= time delay in second c= capacity of the path in bps µ= Mean packet size in bits λ = mean flow in packets/sec Mean delay time for the entire subnet is the weighed sum Find the path which has smallest meandelay using program Calculate waiting factor for each path using W = λ i / λ λ i =Mean packet flow in path λ = Mean packet flow in subnet Path has low waiting factor is shortest path

WORKING PRINCIPLE: 

WORKING PRINCIPLE The border area is divided in to number of nodes Each node is in contact with each other and controlled by main node The noise produced by the foot steps of stranger are collected using the sensor This sensed signal is then converted in to power spectral dencity (PSD) Then compared with reference values Compared value is processed using a microprocessor, sends appropriate signal to the main node Thus the stranger is identified at the main node

WINS DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING: 

WINS DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Foot steps will generate harmonic signals Signal has power- spectrum Should have spectrum- analyzer Spectrum analyzer operates at micro watt Contains a set of parallel filters Each filter is assigned a coefficient set for PSD Power spectral density is computed

PowerPoint Presentation: 

PSD values are compared with background reference values If measured PSD value exceed the backgrond reference value,operation of micro controller triggers The micro controller sends a HIGH signal, if the difference is high It send a LOW signal ,if the difference is low Short range and low bit rate RF communication Embedded radio network must include spread spectrum signaling,channel coding and TDMA network protocols

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SENSORS IN SECURITY 1.seismic sensor: 

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SENSORS IN SECURITY 1.seismic sensor It can detect vibrations caused by the movement of animals or human being standard piezo sensor is used to detect vibrations/sounds due to pressure changes

PowerPoint Presentation: 

2. Acoustic sensors Detect sound and analyses it to determine the nature and distance of the sound source Applications in border security Determines the approximate location of the sound source Calculates the elevation,range and velocity of sound source Analyzing,tagging and classification of sound source Self mapping via GPS Disadvantages Acoustic sensors are fully dependent on sound wave propagation which depends on temperature gradient,wind turbulence,humidity affects the reliability of the sensors

PowerPoint Presentation: 

3. PIR (passive infrared) sensor Used to detect infared light radiating from objects Human body emits IR-This radiation is invisible to eyes and can be detected using sensors Passive-It does not emit energy of any type but accepts incoming IR radiation There is a black plastic window on the top Distant infrared energy can be focuses using Fresnel lens It overlaps a section on the chip Create hot spot and moving This moving hot spot causes the chip to de-energize the relay ,operating it’s contacts and detect the input on alarm If uses thermal shield-corresponding cold spot moving Able to tolerate slow changes in the field-change in sunlight Fresnal lens is horizontally sensitive More than one internal sensing element so can detect direction

PowerPoint Presentation: 

4. Image sensor It is typically a CCD or CMOS device that converts an optical image in to an electronic signal Specifications Up to 640x480 resolution at 15 fps All sensor data available along single usb cable TXDP 1.0 compilant Night vision and image enhancement

PowerPoint Presentation: 

NIGHT VISION Night vision is the ability to see in the dark Night vision devices utilizes the light spectrum that is invisible APPLICATIONS Restriction of illegal immigration across borders during night hours Special operations in dark Coastal surveillances at night How it works?? It works based on the principle of image enhancement

PowerPoint Presentation: 

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT It is based on the fact that all Object reflect any types of light It use an image intensifier tube It consists of an objective lens,photocathode,micro channel plate and a phosphor coated screen An objective lens which collects ambient light from source A photocathode converts collected photons in to electrons A micro channel plate which multiplies the amount of electrons actually flowing through the tube A phosphor coated screen in which the electrons hit The electron when hits the screen causes the phosphor to reach an excited state and hence releases photon The final greenish image is viewed through ocular lens

MONITORING TOOLS FOR WINS: 

MONITORING TOOLS FOR WINS Main node consists of servers, DSP chips,microprocessors and softwares Servers are of three types 1.sensor data server-processing of data 2.sensor alert server-gives alert after comparing the data with reference data 3.sensor data store-stores the data for the future reference Other nodes are connected using Adhoc networking POWER SOURCE OF WINS DRDO(Defense research & development organization) recomments to install Alpha’s advanced powering solution It provide power for fully integrated security systems,video and thermal cameras,alarms etc It used because-economic, continuous power supply, long life

SOFTWARE: 

SOFTWARE Software criteria Software once embedded in to the sensor node is for life time Should be robust,fault tolerant and should provide maximum features Software should have features of security,self healing and self configuration specifications Compatible with Eclipse 3.1 It is an open source software development project Includes eclipse platform,eclipse rich client platform (RCP)& java development tools (JDT) Java SDK 1.5 Extensible plug-in architecture Transducer Data Exchange Protocol(TDXP) 1.0 compilant Includes SDK for IEEE 1451.0 Transducer Electronic Data Sheets(TEDS) Automatic software updates,IMAGER is a software

RECENT WORKS IN INDIA: 

RECENT WORKS IN INDIA This is a proposed security system. Many organizations are involved. Some prior organizations are DRDO,ISRO,IIT etc private sectors are very much interested on the project of WINS and security solutions using this technology because of it’s usefulness in domestic security CONCLUSION A series of interface, signal processing, and communication systems have been implemented in micropower CMOS circuits A micropower spectrum analyzer has been developed to enable low power operation Cheaper,even used for short distance communication It produces a less amount of delay but reasonably faster On a global scale it is used in many applications