TGchapter5 Concepts

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Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Chapter 5 – International and Regional Transportation CONCEPTS Copyright © 1999-2008, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA. Jean-paul.Rodrigue@hofstra.edu You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or redistribution permitted. For more information: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans

Concept 1: 

Concept 1 The Strategic Space of International Transportation

Maritime Routes and Strategic Locations: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Maritime Routes and Strategic Locations

Oil Transited at Major Strategic Locations, 2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Oil Transited at Major Strategic Locations, 2006

Capacity of Key Strategic Passages: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Capacity of Key Strategic Passages

Distance and Time Deviations from Malacca Strait Route: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Distance and Time Deviations from Malacca Strait Route

The Panama Canal: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Panama Canal

Container Traffic Handled by the Panama Canal Railway, 2002-2005 (TEU): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Container Traffic Handled by the Panama Canal Railway, 2002-2005 (TEU)

Traffic Transiting through the Panama Canal (in number of Ships): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Traffic Transiting through the Panama Canal (in number of Ships)

Shipping Lanes and Strategic Passages in Pacific Asia: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Shipping Lanes and Strategic Passages in Pacific Asia

Shipping Lanes, Strategic Passages and Oil Reserves in the Middle East: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Shipping Lanes, Strategic Passages and Oil Reserves in the Middle East

Development of the Suez Canal, 1869-2001: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Development of the Suez Canal, 1869-2001

The Strait of Malacca: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Strait of Malacca Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Malaysia Thailand Indian Ocean Strait of Malacca Gulf of Thailand Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Singapore Strait of Sunda South China Sea

Traffic at the Strait of Malacca: 

Traffic at the Strait of Malacca Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

The Dardanelles and Bosporus Passages: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Dardanelles and Bosporus Passages Black Sea Mediterranean Ocean Marmara Denizi Dardanelles Bosporus Istanbul Turkey Turkey Greece

Oil Exports for the Persian Gulf by Outlet, 2002: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Oil Exports for the Persian Gulf by Outlet, 2002

The Northern East-West Freight Corridor: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Northern East-West Freight Corridor

Concept 2: 

Concept 2 Transportation, Globalization and International Trade

Economic Rationale of Trade: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Economic Rationale of Trade Country 1 Country 3 Country 2 Country 4

Major Global Trade Routes, 1400-1800: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Major Global Trade Routes, 1400-1800 Mexico Havana Peru Brazil West Africa Western Europe Manila Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean East Africa India China Southeast Asia Baltic Hormuz Aden Aceh North America Central Asia Canton Malacca Caribbean Atlantic Ocean Trade Route Dominant Capital Flow

Changes in the Global Trade Environment: 

Changes in the Global Trade Environment Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

Changes in the Global Trade Environment: 

Changes in the Global Trade Environment Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Immobile Factors of Production Mobility of Factors of Production Global Production Networks Bulk point-to-point Container shipping Country A Country B Global Market Commodity chain Commodity Market Before 1970s 1970s – 1990s 1990s onward

World Exports of Merchandise, 1950-2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World Exports of Merchandise, 1950-2006

Levels of Economic Integration: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Levels of Economic Integration Free trade between members: NAFTA, Mercosur, ASEAN (partial) Free Trade Common external tariffs Customs Union Factors of production move freely between members Common Market Common currency, harmonized tax rates, common monetary and fiscal policy: EU (partial) Economic Union Common government Political Union Level of integration Complexity

Economic Integration and Interdependencies: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h G1 G2 Independent Nations Interdependent Groups of Nations Economic Integration and Interdependencies

The “Four Ts” in International Trade (under construction): 

The “Four Ts” in International Trade (under construction) Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Transaction costs Tariff and non-tariff costs Transport costs Time costs

Average Customs Clearance Time (days): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Average Customs Clearance Time (days)

Average Tariffs after the Uruguay Round (%): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Average Tariffs after the Uruguay Round (%)

Changes in Global Trade Flows: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Changes in Global Trade Flows Industrial Pole Before 1970 After 1970 Developed Countries Developing Countries Developed Countries Developing Countries Flows of merchandises Flows of raw materials

International Trade of Merchandises, 2003 (in billions of dollars and in % of all exports): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. International Trade of Merchandises, 2003 (in billions of dollars and in % of all exports) EU $164.7 (16.5 %) $218.9 (21.9%) North America (40.5 %) Asia $427.9 (22.5%) (49.9 %) (61.9 %) $272.3 (9.4 %) $297.6 (15.6 %) $227.2 (7.8 %) $403.7 $1795.4 $949.2

Impacts of Integration Processes on Networks and Flows: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Impacts of Integration Processes on Networks and Flows Network Flows Before Integration After Integration International border

Characteristics of Free Trade Zones: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Characteristics of Free Trade Zones

Value of Chinese Exports and Received FDI, 1983-2004 (Billions of $US): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Value of Chinese Exports and Received FDI, 1983-2004 (Billions of $US)

Changes in the Value World’s Merchandise Trade, Production and GDP, 1950-2006 (in %): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Changes in the Value World’s Merchandise Trade, Production and GDP, 1950-2006 (in %)

Global Exports of Merchandises, 1963-2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Global Exports of Merchandises, 1963-2006

Merchandise Exports by Region (in billions of US$), 1948-2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Merchandise Exports by Region (in billions of US$), 1948-2005

Share of Merchandise Exports by Region, 1948-2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Share of Merchandise Exports by Region, 1948-2005

World’s 10 Largest Exporters and Importers, 2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World’s 10 Largest Exporters and Importers, 2006

Yuan Exchange Rate (per USD), 1981-2007: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Yuan Exchange Rate (per USD), 1981-2007

Share of World Goods Exports, Selected Countries, 1950-2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Share of World Goods Exports, Selected Countries, 1950-2006

Total Freight Costs for Imports in World Trade (% of Total Costs): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Total Freight Costs for Imports in World Trade (% of Total Costs)

Trade by Ocean, 1995: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Trade by Ocean, 1995

Merchandise Exports by Trade Agreement, 2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Merchandise Exports by Trade Agreement, 2005

Major Economic Blocs, 2007: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Major Economic Blocs, 2007

Share of Containerized Cargo in Global Merchandise Trade, 1980-2000: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Share of Containerized Cargo in Global Merchandise Trade, 1980-2000

International Trade and Transportation Chains: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. A B Rail Origin Destination Transport Chain Maritime Road International Trade Transshipment International Trade and Transportation Chains A B Assembly Disassembly Trade barrier Customs

Modal Shares of U.S.-NAFTA-Partner Merchandise Trade by Value and Weight, 2004 : 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Modal Shares of U.S.-NAFTA-Partner Merchandise Trade by Value and Weight, 2004

Concept 3: 

Concept 3 Commodity Chains and Freight Transport

Elements of an Economic System: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Elements of an Economic System Economic System Consumption (demand) Production (supply) Manufacturing Regulation Circulation Distribution Labor Land Capital

Global Financial Centers: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. London New York Los Angeles Singapore Hong Kong Tokyo Telecommunications Space Time Transport Stock Market Opening Period Global Financial Centers

Industrial Agglomeration and Transportation: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Industrial Agglomeration and Transportation Agglomerated Diffused

The World’s 20 Largest Corporations by Market Value, 2007 ($US millions): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The World’s 20 Largest Corporations by Market Value, 2007 ($US millions)

Disconnection of Global Production and Distribution: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Disconnection of Global Production and Distribution Manufacturing Base Core Base

Major Components to Price Reductions by the Chinese Manufacturing Sector, 2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Major Components to Price Reductions by the Chinese Manufacturing Sector, 2005

US Containerized Trade, 2003: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. US Containerized Trade, 2003

Largest American Importers of Asian Goods Through Maritime Container Transport, 2004 (in TEUs): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Largest American Importers of Asian Goods Through Maritime Container Transport, 2004 (in TEUs)

Sectors of American Imports of Asian Goods Through Maritime Container Shipping, 2004 (in TEUs): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Sectors of American Imports of Asian Goods Through Maritime Container Shipping, 2004 (in TEUs)

Modal Profile of Freight Transportation, United States: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Modal Profile of Freight Transportation, United States

Benefits of Improved Freight Transportation: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Benefits of Improved Freight Transportation

Commodity Chain: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Commodity Chain Flows Market Transport Chain Parts and raw materials Manufacturing and assembly Distribution Market Stage Bulk shipping Unit shipping High volumes Low frequency Low volumes High frequency LTL shipping Average volumes High frequency Commodities Final Goods Intermediate Goods

Commodity Chains and Added Value: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Commodity Chains and Added Value Commodity chain Added value Low High Manufacturing R&D Globalization Distribution Design Branding Marketing Sales / Service Concept Logistics

Global Production Networks: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Supply Demand Space Goods Links/Flows Global Production Networks Global Production Networks

Geographical and Functional Integration: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Geographical and Functional Integration Functional Integration Geographical Integration S M D D S M M S Origin / Destination Relationships 1 2 3 4 S M D Supply / Demand Relationships Information Flows Physical Flows Supplying Manufacturing Distribution S M D

Producer and Buyer-driven Commodity Chains: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Producer and Buyer-driven Commodity Chains Manufacturers Distributors Retailers and Dealers Producer-driven Domestic and foreign subsidiaries and subcontractors Buyer-driven Factories Traders Overseas Buyers Branded Manufacturers Retailers Branded Marketers International National

Characteristics of Producer-Driven and Buyer-Driven Global Commodity Chains: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Characteristics of Producer-Driven and Buyer-Driven Global Commodity Chains

Product Life Cycle: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Product Life Cycle Sales Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Monopoly Competition Research and development Maturity Decline First competitors Mass production Innovating firm Competitors Growth Stage 4 Promotion Idea Decline of production

Commodity Chains and Types of Transported Freight: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Commodity Chains and Types of Transported Freight Raw materials Semi-finished products Manufactured goods Extraction Transfer Processing Intra-industrial linkages Manufacturing Retailing Distribution

Changes in the Value of World’s Trade per Type of Merchandise, 1950-2005 (in %): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Changes in the Value of World’s Trade per Type of Merchandise, 1950-2005 (in %)

Global Merchandises Exports by Product, 1990-2005 (in % of value): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Global Merchandises Exports by Product, 1990-2005 (in % of value)

Geographical Growth of a Multinational Corporation: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Geographical Growth of a Multinational Corporation Center Nation Other Nation Tariff Basic Enterprise Penetration of a National Market Penetration of Foreign Markets 1 2 3 4 Factory Distribution center Representative Multinational Corporation

Global Production Networks and Location Strategies: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Centralized Production Regional Production Regional Specialization Vertical Integration Country A Country B Country C Country D Global Production Networks and Location Strategies

The Velocity of Freight: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Velocity of Freight Push Logistics Shipment Speed Transshipment Speed Pull Logistics Containerization Speed barrier Logistical threshold Future improvements

NAFTA Transborder Truck Flows and Traffic at US Ports of Entry, 2002: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. NAFTA Transborder Truck Flows and Traffic at US Ports of Entry, 2002

Market Share by Freight Transport Mode, Western Europe, 1980-2002 (in ton-km): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Market Share by Freight Transport Mode, Western Europe, 1980-2002 (in ton-km)

Market Share by Freight Transport Mode, United States, 1965-2005 (in ton-miles): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Market Share by Freight Transport Mode, United States, 1965-2005 (in ton-miles)

Fluxes in a Fordist and Post-Fordist Production System: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Fordism Post-Fordism Raw materials and parts Manufacturing Sales and distribution Fluxes in a Fordist and Post-Fordist Production System

Fordist and Post-Fordist Corporate Structure: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Fordist and Post-Fordist Corporate Structure

Level of Embeddedness of Production and Distribution: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Level of Embeddedness of Production and Distribution Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market Pure Standardization Segmented Standardization Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market Customized Standardization Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market Tailored Customization Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market Pure Customization Processing without order Shipment to order Assembly to order Manufacturing to order Design to order Embeddedness Push (expectation) Pull (response)

The Global Car Production Network, 2003: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Global Car Production Network, 2003 Ford Jaguar Land Rover Volvo Aston Martin Mazda Isuzu Suzuki GM Vauxhall Opel Daewoo Saab VAG Bentley Skoda Seat Audi VW Dailmer Chrysler Mercedes Benz Chrysler Jeep Fiat Lancia Maserati Ferrari Alfa Romeo Toyota Daihatsu Porsche Nissan Renault Hyundai PSA Peugeot Citroen BMW Rolls Royce Mitsubishi Honda Equity ownership Joint venture Equity relationship Functionally integrated group

The Automobile Supply Chain: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Automobile Supply Chain Supplying industries Steel and other metals Rubber Electronics Plastic Glass Textiles Bodies Components Engines and transmissions Final Assembly Manufacture and stamping of body panels Body assembling and painting Manufacture of mechanical and electrical components (wheels, tires, seats, breaking systems, windshields, exhausts, etc.) Forging and casting of engine and transmission components Machining and assembly of engines and transmissions Consumer market

Cereals Supply Chain: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Cereals Supply Chain Farm Wood Pulp Mfg Processing Facility Packaging Label Mfg Converter Distributor Store Packaged Cereal Packaged Cereal Grain Wood Pulp Paperboard Labels Wood Pulp Cereal Distribution and Retailing Manufacturing Extraction

The Cold Chain: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Cold Chain Potential integrity breach Temperature Temperature Range Potential integrity breach Transport Time Unloading – Warehousing – Loading Transport

Concept 4: 

Concept 4 Logistics

Logistics Operations: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Logistics Operations Demand Transportation Stock Management Purchase Orders Processing Handling Packaging Purchase Sales Production Scheduling Warehousing

Logistics and Integrated Transport Demand: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Logistics and Integrated Transport Demand Logistics (Integrated Demand) Materials Management Physical Distribution Induced Demand Derived Demand

Value-Added Functions of Logistics: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Value-Added Functions of Logistics Production Location Time Control Logistics

Total Logistics Costs Tradeoff: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Total Logistics Costs Tradeoff Costs Shipment Size or Number of Warehouses Transport Costs Total Logistics Costs Warehousing Costs

Logistics Costs and Economic Development: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Logistics Costs and Economic Development Agriculture Mining Industry Services Information Logistics Costs / GNP Economic Development United States Japan Singapore Argentina Kenya Brazil Poland Ukraine Belgium Canada

Worldwide Logistics Costs, 2002: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Worldwide Logistics Costs, 2002

Evolution of Logistical Integration, 1960-2000: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Evolution of Logistical Integration, 1960-2000 Demand Forecasting Purchasing Requirements Planning Production Planning Manufacturing Inventory Warehousing Materials Handling Packaging Inventory Distribution Planning Order Processing Transportation Customer Service Strategic Planning Materials Management Physical Distribution Logistics Supply Chain Management Information Technology Marketing 1980s 1990s 2000s 1960s Fragmentation Consolidation Warehousing Materials Handling Packaging Functional Integration Value Capture

From Push to Pull Logistics: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. From Push to Pull Logistics Supplier Supplier Supplier Manufacturer Customer Distributor Supplier Supplier Supplier Supplier Supplier Supplier Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Customer 3PL Returns / Recycling Point-of-sale data Freight flow Push Pull

Benefits of Demand-Driven Supply Systems: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Benefits of Demand-Driven Supply Systems Inventory turnover Working capital Cause Consequence Customer service Net income Labor productivity Operating expenses Capacity utilization Return on assets Logistics costs Operating expenses

Fragmentation of the Production System and the Logistics Industry: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Fragmentation of the Production System and the Logistics Industry Inputs Outputs Factory Region A Region A Region B Region C Logistics Conventional Emerging Distribution

Logistical Improvements, Manufacturing Sector, 1960s to 2000s: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Logistical Improvements, Manufacturing Sector, 1960s to 2000s

Changes in the Relative Importance of Logistical Functions in Distribution Systems: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Changes in the Relative Importance of Logistical Functions in Distribution Systems

Average Order Lead Times of European Manufacturers, Wholesalers, and Retailers: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Average Order Lead Times of European Manufacturers, Wholesalers, and Retailers

Inventory Profile in the Automotive Supply Chain, UK 1999: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Inventory Profile in the Automotive Supply Chain, UK 1999

Logistics Costs, United States, 1980-2002 (in billions of $): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Logistics Costs, United States, 1980-2002 (in billions of $)

% of Products Shipped for “Just-in-Time” Manufacturing: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. % of Products Shipped for “Just-in-Time” Manufacturing

Product Life Cycle of a Television, 1960-1996: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Product Life Cycle of a Television, 1960-1996

Taxonomy of Logistics Decisions: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Taxonomy of Logistics Decisions

Conventional and Contemporary Arrangement of Goods Flow: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Conventional and Contemporary Arrangement of Goods Flow Raw Materials & Parts Manufacturing Distribution Raw Materials Storage National Distribution Regional Storage Local Distribution Retailers Supply Chain Management Raw Materials Distribution Center Retailers Manufacturing Customers Customers Conventional Contemporary Material flow (delivery) Information flow (order) Core component

Third and Fourth Party Logistics Providers: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Third and Fourth Party Logistics Providers Modes Distribution Centers Management 3PL 3PL 4PL 3PL 3PL Manufacturers Parts and Raw Materials Retailers Consumers

Services Offered by Third Party Logistics Providers: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Services Offered by Third Party Logistics Providers

Percentage of Manufacturers Using 3PL, United States: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Percentage of Manufacturers Using 3PL, United States

Forward and Reverse Distribution: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Forward and Reverse Distribution Consumers Producers Distributors Collectors Recyclers Forward Channel Reverse Channel Suppliers

Nodes and Freight Distribution: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Globalization of Consumption Nodes and Freight Distribution Production Consumption Local Global Distribution Scale Distribution Scope Globalization of Production DC Global Distribution Manufacturing Retailing Regional Distribution

Characteristics of Large-scale Distribution Centers: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Characteristics of Large-scale Distribution Centers

Proximity and Intermediacy for Distribution Clusters: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Proximity and Intermediacy for Distribution Clusters DC DC DC Long distance transport corridor Intermediacy Proximity Proximity Metropolitan Area

Value-added Activities Performed at Distribution Clusters: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Value-added Activities Performed at Distribution Clusters Terminal Pickup Delivery Warehousing Inventory Management Inspection Transloading Packing Labeling / RFID Assembly / Customizing

Cross-Docking Distribution Center: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Cross-Docking Distribution Center Suppliers Customers Receiving Shipping Sorting Distribution Center Before Cross-Docking LTL Suppliers Customers After Cross-Docking TL TL Cross-Docking DC

National Semiconductors, Supply Chain, 1993, 2001, 2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. National Semiconductors, Supply Chain, 1993, 2001, 2005 Wafer Fabrication Assembly & Testing Distribution Center South Portland (Maine) Salt Lake City (UT) Santa Clara (CA) Arlington (TX) Greenock (Scotland) Migdal Haemek (Israel) Cebu (Philippines) Bangkok (Thailand) Penang (Malaysia) Melaka (Malaysia) Toa Payoh (Singapore) Santa Clara Swindon (UK) Tokyo Hong Kong South Portland Regional Distribution Centers (1993) South Portland (Maine) Salt Lake City (UT) Santa Clara (CA) Arlington (TX) Greenock (Scotland) Cebu (Philippines) Bangkok (Thailand) Penang (Malaysia) Melaka (Malaysia) Toa Payoh (Singapore) Global Distribution Center (2001) Singapore (GDC) Singapore (GDC) South Portland (Maine) Arlington (TX) Greenock (Scotland) Supply Chain Rationalization (2005) Suzhou (China) Melaka (Malaysia) Toa Payoh (Singapore) Customers

Freight Distribution and Network Strategies: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Freight Distribution and Network Strategies A B Point-to-Point A B Corridor A B Hub-and-Spoke A B Fixed Routing A B Flexible Routing Transshipment node Route node Network node Unserviced node Route Alternative route

Logistics Networks: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Logistics Networks Dispersed Clustered Point to Point Hub-and-spoke Locations Network Structure

Types of Container Flows: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Types of Container Flows Balanced Imbalanced Hybrid

Container Flows and Repositioning: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Container Flows and Repositioning Port Terminal Empty Depots Empty Delivery Empty Repositioning Empty Pick Up Full Delivery Full or Empty Delivery Full Delivery Consigner Consignee Empty Delivery Full Delivery Sold out of Network Full Delivery Empty Repositioning & Full Delivery Empty Delivery Empty Pick Up Regional Intermodal Transportation Network Global Maritime Container Shipping Network Trade Flows Global Repositioning

Imbalances and Container Repositioning Strategies: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Imbalances and Container Repositioning Strategies Repositioning Distance (TEU – KM) Unit Repositioning Costs Local Regional International Container manufacturing costs (Empty interchange) (Intermodal repositioning) High imbalance Low imbalance Repositioning not economically feasible (Overseas repositioning) Imbalances not considered a problem High limit of feasible actions Low limit of feasible actions

Cargo Rotation: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Cargo Rotation Inland location with Imports >> exports Export flows Import flows Empties Inland location with Exports >> imports Port A B

Logistical Strategies to Cope with Congestion: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Logistical Strategies to Cope with Congestion

Complexity of the Supply Chain: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Complexity of the Supply Chain Factory Distribution center Representative National International National Supply Chain Multinational Supply Chain Simple Complex High-throughput DC

National Semiconductors, Supply Chain, 1993, 2001, 2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. National Semiconductors, Supply Chain, 1993, 2001, 2005 Wafer Fabrication Assembly & Testing Distribution Center South Portland (Maine) Salt Lake City (UT) Santa Clara (CA) Arlington (TX) Greenock (Scotland) Migdal Haemek (Israel) Cebu (Philippines) Bangkok (Thailand) Penang (Malaysia) Melaka (Malaysia) Toa Payoh (Singapore) Santa Clara Swindon (UK) Tokyo Hong Kong South Portland Regional Distribution Centers (1993) South Portland (Maine) Salt Lake City (UT) Santa Clara (CA) Arlington (TX) Greenock (Scotland) Cebu (Philippines) Bangkok (Thailand) Penang (Malaysia) Melaka (Malaysia) Toa Payoh (Singapore) Global Distribution Center (2001) Singapore (GDC) Singapore (GDC) South Portland (Maine) Arlington (TX) Greenock (Scotland) Supply Chain Rationalization (2005) Suzhou (China) Melaka (Malaysia) Toa Payoh (Singapore) Customers

The Logistics of Mitsui & Co.: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Logistics of Mitsui & Co. Distribution System Mitsui Production Sales Needs Increase production efficiency. Reduce distribution costs. Services Offer and develop a logistical distribution system. Needs Reduce inventory costs. Offer better services to customers. Logistical center Supervisions of orders and the inventory. Consolidation of deliveries. Producer Producer Producer Customer Customer Customer Orders Orders Information fluxes Freight fluxes

15 Largest Owners of Warehouses, North America, 2000 (in millions of square feet): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 15 Largest Owners of Warehouses, North America, 2000 (in millions of square feet)

Ten Largest Global Logistics Service Providers, 1998: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Ten Largest Global Logistics Service Providers, 1998

Logistics and E-commerce: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Logistics and E-commerce Retailer Supply chain E-Retailer Customers Customers Supply chain DC DC Traditional Logistics E-Logistics

Shifts of Logistical Operations in the Internet Economy: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Shifts of Logistical Operations in the Internet Economy

The “Last Mile” in Freight Distribution: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The “Last Mile” in Freight Distribution Gateway Inland Terminal Distribution Center Capacity Frequency Corridor Customer “Last Mile” Segment GLOBAL HINTERLAND REGIONAL LOCAL Shipping Network Massification Atomization

City Logistics: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. City Logistics Urban Terminal DC Central City

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