Chapter 02

Category: Education

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Section 1: 

Section 1 Fundamentals of Nutrition

Chapter 2: 

Chapter 2 Planning a Healthy Diet


Objectives Define a balanced diet List the U.S. government’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans and explain the reasons for each Identify the food groups and their placement on the Food Guide Pyramid


Objectives Describe information commonly found on food labels List some food customs of various cultural groups Describe the development of food customs

Balanced Diet: 

Balanced Diet Includes all the essential nutrients in appropriate amounts Preserves and promotes good health

Stop and Share: 

Stop and Share Divide into groups of 2. Answer the following question: How do you know you eat a balanced diet? Share your answer with your partner.

Stop and Share: 

Stop and Share Meal Planning Cumbersome and time-consuming if tables have to be followed for each meal Tables provide Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Simple system Dietary Guidelines for Americans developed by USDA and DHHS Food Guide Pyramid developed by USDA

Dietary Guidelines for Americans : 

Dietary Guidelines for Americans Aim for a healthy weight. Be physically active each day. Let the Pyramid guide your food choices. Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans: 

Dietary Guidelines for Americans Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. Keep food safe to eat. Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, and moderate in total fat.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans: 

Dietary Guidelines for Americans Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars. Choose and prepare foods with less salt. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.

Food Guide Pyramid: 

Food Guide Pyramid Bread, cereal, rice, pasta Vegetable Fruit Milk, yogurt, cheese Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts Fats, oils, sweets

Food Guide Pyramid: 

Food Guide Pyramid (Courtesy of the USDA and DHHS, 1992, The food guide pyramid: A guide to daily food choices. Leaflet no. 572, Washington, D.C.)

Mediterranean Diet Pyramid: 

Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Developed by World Health Organization (WHO) and Harvard’s School of Public Health Encourages monounsaturated fats

Food Labeling: 

Food Labeling Mandatory labeling for nearly all processed foods started in May, 1994 as a result of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA). Primary objective is to ensure that labels on most foods provide consistent nutrition information.

Food Labeling: 

Food Labeling Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sets health claims allowed and serving sizes. Descriptive terms standardized

Food Labeling: Nutrition Facts Required: 

Food Labeling: Nutrition Facts Required Total calories Calories from fat Total fat Saturated fat Cholesterol Sodium Total carbohydrates Dietary fiber Sugars Protein Vitamin A Vitamin C Calcium Iron

Food Labeling: 

Food Labeling (Courtesy of the FDA)

Food Customs: 

Food Customs Food habits may be based on nationality, culture, and religion. Foods available in a certain area may be favored for economic reasons. Economic status and social status contribute to food habits.

Stop and Share: 

Stop and Share Consider the following questions: How can a health care professional gain knowledge regarding a patient’s dietary preferences? Why is it important for a health care professional to understand food patterns unique to different cultures?

Stop and Share: 

Stop and Share Talking with the patient and learning about his or her background will help the health care professional gain knowledge regarding food preferences. Plan nourishing meals consisting of foods that appeal to the patient. Adjustments in diet can be made gradually and effectively.

Native American: 

Native American Approximately half of the edible plants commonly eaten in the United States today originated with the Native Americans. Corn, potatoes, squash, cranberries, pumpkins, beans, wild rice, and cocoa beans Wild fruits, game, and fish Foods were commonly prepared as soups, stews or were dried.

Native American : 

Native American

U.S. Southern : 

U.S. Southern Popular foods: corn bread, biscuits, grits, rice, sweet potatoes, squash, watermelon, oranges, peaches, fried fish, lima beans, green beans cooked with pork, barbecued/ stewed meats and poultry Diet may be high in fat and carbohydrates; limited in protein, iron, calcium, and vitamins A and C.

Mexican : 

Mexican Popular foods: beans, rice, chili peppers, tomatoes, tortillas made of corn meal or flour Beans and corn make a complete protein. Milk, green and yellow vegetables, and vitamin C-rich foods would improve these diets.

Puerto Rican: 

Puerto Rican Popular foods: rice, beans, peppers, plantains, tomatoes, bananas, pineapple, mangoes, papayas, chicken, beef, pork Lacking milk nutritionally


Italian Popular foods: pastas, tomato sauces, cheese, fish, meat, root vegetables Excellent sources of nutrients include: eggs, cheese, tomatoes, green vegetables, and fruits. Fat-free milk and low-fat meat would improve diet.

Northern and Western European: 

Northern and Western European Popular foods: beef, pork, cooked vegetables, breads, cakes, and dairy products Fewer green vegetable salads and greater use of dark breads, potatoes, and fish than U.S. Midwest; otherwise similar. Fresh vegetables and fruits would add vitamins, minerals, and fiber to these diets.

Central European: 

Central European Popular foods: potatoes, grain (especially rye and buckwheat), pork, cooked cabbage, carrots, onions, and turnips Eggs and dairy products used abundantly. To improve diet, limit number of eggs, use fat-free or low-fat dairy products, and add fresh vegetables and fruits.

Middle Eastern: 

Middle Eastern Popular foods: grains, wheat, rice, chickpeas in the form of hummus, lamb, yogurt, cabbage, grape leaves, eggplant, tomatoes, dates, olives, and figs

Middle Eastern: 

Middle Eastern May contain insufficient amounts of protein and calcium depending on the amounts of meat and calcium-rich foods eaten. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be added to increase vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Black, very sweet coffee is a popular beverage.


Chinese Popular foods: rice, soybeans, eggs, pork, and tea Low-fat diet Soy sauce is high in salt–problematic for patients on low-salt diets.


Japanese Popular foods: rice, soybean paste and curd, vegetables, fruits, fish Tempura style (fried) Soysauce (shoyu) and tea are common. Diet lacks milk. May be deficient in calcium and excessive in salt.


Indian Popular foods: eggs, dairy products, rice, peas, beans, spices (curry) Diet may be vegetarian. Eating with fingers is acceptable.

Thai, Vietnamese, Laotian, Cambodian: 

Thai, Vietnamese, Laotian, Cambodian Popular foods: rice, curries, vegetables, fruit Fish and meats are used in small amounts. Diet may lack adequate protein and calcium.


Jewish Orthodox follow dietary rules Conservative follow rules in home Reform may not follow dietary laws

Jewish Dietary Laws: 

Jewish Dietary Laws Kosher–foods prepared following rules Qualified person slaughters animals. Meat not prepared with milk or milk products. Dishes used for meat and dairy kept separate. Dairy and meat not eaten together. Mouth rinsed between fish and meat. Observe days for fasting. No cooking on Sabbath.

Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox : 

Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Roman Catholic Meat not allowed Ash Wednesday and fridays during Lent Eastern Orthodox Includes Christians from the Middle East, Russia, and Greece Meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products restricted wednesdays, fridays, and during Lent and Advent

Seventh Day Adventist and Mormon: 

Seventh Day Adventist and Mormon Seventh Day Adventist Lacto-ovo vegetarians: use milk products and eggs, but no meat, fish, or poultry Nuts, legumes and meat substitutes, tofu Coffee, tea, and alcohol considered harmful Mormon Coffee, tea and alcohol prohibited

Islamic and Hindu: 

Islamic and Hindu Islamic Adherents of Islam are called Muslims Pork and alcohol prohibited; other meat slaughtered by specific laws During the month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours Hindu All life sacred; animals and eggs not eaten


Vegetarians Lacto-ovo: use dairy products and eggs, but no meat, poultry, or fish Lacto: use dairy products but no meat, poultry, or eggs Vegans: avoid all animal foods Diets should be carefully planned to include essential amino acids.

Zen-Macrobiotic Diets: 

Zen-Macrobiotic Diets Developed from Zen Buddhism System of 10 diet plans Gradually give up foods as follows: desserts, salads, fruits, animal foods, soups, and ultimately vegetables, until only cereals–usually brown rice–are consumed.


Conclusion Tools can be used to help patients plan a healthy diet. Individual food customs must be respected. A registered dietitian can help plan diets. Gradual corrections in dietary habits are easier to make and more effective when the reasons for the food habits are understood.

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