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Basic English: Book Four Unit 15 Gettysburg Addresses : 

Basic English: Book Four Unit 15 Gettysburg Addresses

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  I. Suggested Teaching Plan 1. Background information about the author and the works mentioned in the text. Ask a group of three students to surf the internet to gather the relative background information, and the teacher sums up. 2. Let the students skim through the text at the speed of 200-250 words a minute and underline the key words and phrases or top sentences in each paragraph. 3. Ask the students to answer some broad questions which are given to them before skimming and then ask the students to sum up the text in their own words.

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4. Analyzing the text I intensively, focusing on the discourse analysis, the coherence of events and the ideas as well as the language points. Encouraging the students to paragraph the words, phrases, sentences or even paragraphs in order to develop their ability to express themselves in English. 5. Ask the students to answer the specific questions in the textbook. 6. Finishing the consolidation exercises in the students' WB after finishing the analysis of text I. 7. Making comments on the two addresses 8. Ask the students to read through the text II after class, encouraging them to use the English-English dictionaries. 9. A quiz for about 20-25 minutes is suggested after each unit.

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Objectives Students will be able to : 1. Grasp the main idea and the structure of the address or speech 2. Learn to make an address 3. Master the key language points and the grammatical structures in the text. 4. Conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit.

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Time allotment 1. One period for background information and the general ideas of the text I. 2. Two or three periods for explaining and paraphrasing the text I, including the relative exercises in the students' WB. 3. One period of the interactive activity with the hope of reviewing the text and make some comments on the writing style. 4. One period for the listening exercises and the guided writing. 5. Two periods for the comments of the exercises in the students' WB. 6. Half period for the quiz.

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Pre-reading tasks| The teacher asks the students to read Text II first to get an idea of Lincoln and the American Civil War and let the students express their views freely While-reading tasks 1. Grasping the structures of the text and get the main idea 2. Paying attention to the characteristics of two addresses 3. Explaining the language points and giving students practice. Post-reading tasks Teachers check if students have done the rest of the after-text exercises in their spare time. 2. Teacher check on the students' home reading (text II)

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II. Text Analysis and Language Study The author: see the appendix I INTRODUCTION TO ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG ADDRESS Few documents in the growth of American democracy are as well known or as beloved as the prose poem Abraham Lincoln delivered at the dedication of the military cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In June 1863 Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee moved north in an effort to win a dramatic victory that would reverse the South's declining fortunes. On July 1-3, Lee's forces fought the Union army under the command of George C. Meade, and before the fighting ended, the two sides suffered more than 45,000 casualties. Lee, having lost more than a third of his men, retreated, and the Battle of Gettysburg is considered a turning point in the American Civil War.

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The dedication of the battlefield and cemetery thus provided Lincoln with an opportunity for a major address, but he disappointed many of his supporters when he gave this short talk. In fact, many of the spectators did not even know the president had started speaking when he finished. But in this talk Lincoln managed, as the great orator Edward Everett (the main speaker at the dedication) understood, to combine all the elements of the battle and the dedication into a unified whole. These men fought, and died, for the Union. Now their work was done; they had made the supreme sacrifice, and it was up to those living to carry on the task. But Lincoln's rhetoric, as subsequent generations discovered, did far more than memorialize the dead; it transformed the meaning of the Constitution for those still alive. Lincoln read into the Constitution a promise of equality, the "proposition that all men are created equal." That, of course, had been a premise of the Declaration of Independence, but everyone understood that the drafters of that document had not intended to include slaves and other "inferior" peoples in their definition. Now the country had fought a great war to test that notion, and the lives of the men who died at Gettysburg could be hallowed only one way -- if the nation, finally, lived up to the proposition that all of its people, regardless of race, were in fact equal. The power of the idea still informs American democratic thought.

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The Main Ideas I A Lincoln' s address Our forefathers have brought forth a new nation with high principles, and many brave men have fought to death to uphold these principles. We shall carry on and devote to the unfinished task they began.   Text IA 1. Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created --- Eighty-seven years ago, our ancestors established on this continent a new nation inspired by the spirit of liberty and devoted to the principle that all men are born equal.

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... a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.—(That all men are created equal is an appositive clause introduced by the conjunction that. The whole clause is in apposition to the word proposition.) -- a new nation, which is founded on the principle of liberty, and is devoted wholly to the proposal that all men are born equal. It is in the U.S. Declaration of Independence that liberty and the proposition are mentioned: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and pursuit of Happiness." a score -- twenty. The word score, as a rule , takes the same form for both singular and plural. More examples of nouns of the similar type: A stone- British unit of weight equal to 14 pounds with plural form usually unchanged, e.g., John weighs 10 stone 5 ( =145 pounds). a dozen --twelve, e.g., 3 dozen cakes but dozens of -- lots of scores of- large numbers of

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bring forth --produce, give birth to. (This phrase is rather literary ) Another example: Clive sat wondering what the future would bring forth after his graduation from Cambridge. Dedicate To set apart for a deity or for religious purposes; consecrate.供奉 To set apart for a special use: dedicated their money to scientific research. 把他们的钱用于科学研究 To show to the public for the first time: dedicate a monument.为一座博物馆举行落成仪式

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2. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated , can long endure . – We are fighting a very important war inside our own country. If any nation which was formed with the idea of liberty and devoted to the principle that all men are created equal can continue to exist for a long time. The civil war refers to the American Civil War, the war between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy) in the United States (1861 - 1865). (Refer to Text Il for details. ) be engaged in -- take part in, be occupied with More examples: Our manager is engaged in the preparation of the opening of this year’ s Chinese Export Commodities Fair. The Chinese people are engaged in the four modernization programme and we welcome and encourage all kinds of foreign investments . So here is an adverb of manner meaning in this/that way

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3. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those….. We have come to dedicate (To set apart for a special use) a part of this battlefield as the burial place of ... 4. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. –It is entirely suitable and correct for us to do this. 5. But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate –we cannot hallow—this ground --- But strictly speaking, we are not in a position to dedicate, consecrate or harrow this ground; in other words, we are not able to make this place sacred in a larger sense: at a deeper level hallow : To make or set apart as holy. a hallowed ground 圣地 6. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they have thus far so nobly advanced. ---- We who are still alive now should devote ourselves to the work begun so well by the heroes.

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7….we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion. .. . we will dedicate our lives even more firmly to the cause of the upholding of liberty and the maintaining of the proposition that all men are created equal and they showed their final expression of whole-hearted love and loyalty for that cause. 8. We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. --- We who are here now vow to ensure that their deaths were for a good cause. 9….this nation …shall have a new birth of freedom—It is our intention that our country shall enjoy still more freedom  

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Text IB The author -- Edward Everett (1794- 1865), U.S. orator, educator and public official.Best known for his brilliant public speaking, he was also a member of Congress, Governor of Massachusetts, minister to Britain, president of Harvard College and Secretary of State. After the outbreak of the Civil War, Everett devoted his talents to the union cause through numerous lecture tours. On Nov. 19, 1863, he was the major speaker at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg and delivered a two-hour oration on behalf of national unity. IB Everett' s address I have come to perform my duty to speak on this occasion. It is a good thing that the war has brought about a new bond of union in our country. The bravery of the heroic soldiers will not be forgotten. The glorious battle of Gettysburg will be recorded and remembered.

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1. Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now reposing from the labours of the waning year, the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation that I raise my poor voice to break the eloquent silence of God and nature. -----As I stand here, with the calm and peaceful sky above me, a view of this vast stretch of fields, now lying still after a year of toil, enfolding before me, the faint but magnificent Alleghenies above us, the graves of our brothers beneath us, I feel hesitant to speak and disturb the meaningful silence of God and nature. repose -- lie at rest of the waning year -- when the year is coming to an end wane: grow gradually smaller or less after being full or complete More examples: Just as the moon waxes and wanes, every individual has joys and sorrows, parting and reunions, throughout his whole life. After the death of the chief, the tribe’s power quickly waned and they were soon conquered by the neighbouring tribe .

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the mighty Alleghenies: part of Appalachian mountains. They rise in SW New York and covers parts of western Pennsylvania, western Maryland and eastern Ohio. brethren -- brothers. This is usually used in solemn addresses, i.e., in speaking formally to or about members of a religious group. eloquent silence -- meaningful, almost poetic silence. Here the writer uses the stylistic device of oxymoron 矛盾修饰法i.e., the combining of opposite or contradictory ideas or terms More examples.. "Parting is such sweet sorrow" (from Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare) sweet sorrow: a feeling that is both sweet and sorrowful (This expresses the relationship of mixed feelings. ) cruel kindness -- kindness that results in cruelty (This expresses the relationship of cause and effect. ) thunderous silence -- a state which, though silent, produces a thunderous effect ( This expresses the relationship of concession. ) Better a witty fool than a foolish wit (from Twelfth Night by Shakespeare) ~

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2. …the duty to which you have called me must be performed .--- I am obliged to do what you have asked me to do. 3. …grant me, I pray you, your indulgence and your sympathy ---. I ask for your kindness and understanding .. 4. …invoke your benediction on these honoured graves. --- appeal to you for your blessing of these much respected people buried here invoke To call for earnestly; solicit invoked the help of a passing motorist.恳求一位过路的汽车司机给予帮助 To resort to; use or apply: Shamelessly, he invokes coincidence to achieve ironic effect(Newsweek) “可耻的是,他借助于巧合来达到反讽效果”(新闻周刊) benediction: blessing give the benediction举行祝福式

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5. You feel that it was greatly auspicious for the cause of the country that the men of the East, and the men of the West, the men of nineteen sister states, stood side by side on the perilous ridge of the battle . ----The fact that men from the East and West and from the nineteen sister states fighting side by side on the dangerous hills on which the battles were fought was reassuring for the cause of the country. Auspicious: favorable, fortunate, here reassuring Perilous: very dangerous 6. God bless the union, it is dearer to us for the blood of brave men which had been shed in its defense --- May God be with and look favourably on the Union, which is all the more precious because so many brave men died defending it. 7. Where the noble Reynolds held the advancing foe at bay, and while he gave up his own life, assured by his forethought and self sacrifice the triumph.---... where brave Reynolds kept the enemy from marching forward, and by wise planning and careful thought for the future ensured the victory of the following two days, even though he died in doing so.

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the noble Reynolds -- referring to John Fulton Reynolds (1820 - 1863), the lieutenant general陆军中将, 海军陆战队中将 of the federal army. He died on July 1,1863, in the Battle of Gettysburg. at bay -- in a place from where somebody's movements are limited hold (somebody) at bay -- keep (somebody) from coming too near More examples: The fact that the second squad successfully held the advancing enemy at bay ensured the preparation of our large-scale offensive at dawn. The inspector chased the murderer to a cliff, where he kept him at bay until more police came and arrested him assure -- make certain More examples: Reading books on science and animal husbandry assured the financial success of many educated peasants in their chosen professions. Before leaving the workshop, the old worker always assured himself that all the lights had been turned off.

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8. The spots on which they stood and fell… The places where they fought and died 9. …”the whole earth is the sepulcher of illustrious men”. --- the whole earth is a tomb of distinguished heroes. 10. All time … is the millennium of the glory…. A period of righteousness and happiness and their glory is everlasting. Millennium: A span of one thousand years. 11. Surely I would do no injustice to the other noble achievements of the war do no injustice to -- do justice to; treat fairly; show the true value of 公平对待, 适当处理 More examples: I don' t mean to say that I am handsome but the picture really did not do me justice. Being an honest man, the journalist will do no injustice to what happened here today.

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12.. and have entitled the armies and the navy of the United States, their officers and men, to the warmest thanks and the richest rewards which a grateful people can pay. entitle (to) --give (someone) the right (to do something) More examples: As soon as the war was over, in some places, the uniform entitled army officers and soldiers to free admission to concerts and cinemas. Zhou is fully entitled to the great honour of being declared a people’s Teacher for her great achievements in research work and painstaking efforts in teaching. 13. As we bid farewell to the dust of these martyrheroes. --- when we say goodbye to what is left of these martyrs and heroes. Some comments on the text see p260

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Appendix I Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you.... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it." Lincoln thought secession illegal, and was willing to use force to defend Federal law and the Union. When Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter and forced its surrender, he called on the states for 75,000 volunteers. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy but four remained within the Union. The Civil War had begun.

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The son of a Kentucky frontiersman, Lincoln had to struggle for a living and for learning. Five months before receiving his party's nomination for President, he sketched his life: "I was born Feb. 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents were both born in Virginia, of undistinguished families--second families, perhaps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth year, was of a family of the name of Hanks.... My father ... removed from Kentucky to ... Indiana, in my eighth year.... It was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up.... Of course when I came of age I did not know much. Still somehow, I could read, write, and cipher ... but that was all." Lincoln made extraordinary efforts to attain knowledge while working on a farm, splitting rails for fences, and keeping store at New Salem, Illinois. He was a captain in the Black Hawk War, spent eight years in the Illinois legislature, and rode the circuit of courts for many years. His law partner said of him, "His ambition was a little engine that knew no rest."

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He married Mary Todd, and they had four boys, only one of whom lived to maturity. In 1858 Lincoln ran against Stephen A. Douglas for Senator. He lost the election, but in debating with Douglas he gained a national reputation that won him the Republican nomination for President in 1860. As President, he built the Republican Party into a strong national organization. Further, he rallied most of the northern Democrats to the Union cause. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy. Lincoln never let the world forget that the Civil War involved an even larger issue. This he stated most movingly in dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg: "that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain--that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom--and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

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Lincoln won re-election in 1864, as Union military triumphs heralded an end to the war. In his planning for peace, the President was flexible and generous, encouraging Southerners to lay down their arms and join speedily in reunion. The spirit that guided him was clearly that of his Second Inaugural Address, now inscribed on one wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C.: "With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds.... " On Good Friday, April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's Theatre in Washington by John Wilkes Booth, an actor, who somehow thought he was helping the South. The opposite was the result, for with Lincoln's death, the possibility of peace with magnanimity died.

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1863, Gettysburg Address July 01-03 - The battle of Gettysburg, the bloodiest battle of the civil war, over 51,000 wounded, missing or killed After the battle Pennsylvania governor Andrew Curtin had gave David Wills, a successful local citizen and judge, the task of cleaning up the horrible aftermath of the battle. Wounded and dying were crowded into nearly every available building. Most of the casualties lay in hasty and inadequate graves and thousands of swollen dead lay among hundreds of bloated, dead horses. With the approval of the governor and the eighteen states whose sons were among the dead Wills acquires seventeen acres for the cemetery and had the Germantown landscape architect, William Saunders, draw up a plan for the national cememtary.

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September 23 - Wills invites Edward Everett, the nation's foremost rhetorician, to speak at the dedication ceremony planned for October 23. Everett needs more time to prepare and persuades Wills to postpone the ceremony to November 19.  November 00 - Reinterment begins 02 - David Wills invites President Lincoln to make a "few appropriate remarks" at the consecration of a cemetery for the Union war dead at Gettysburg and invites the President to stay at his home, along with Governor Curtin and Edward Everett. 18 - Lincoln writes the first draft in Washington just before the 18th and revises it at the home of David Wills in Gettysburg. 19 - Less than half the Union dead have been removed from their field graves.

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19 - Edward Everett speaks for two hours, as was common for the day. 19 - Lincoln Makes his speech. The audience is stunned by its shortness, returning to his seat Lincln remarks,"That speech won't scour. It is a flat failure." 20 - Everett writes Lincoln, "I should be glad if I could flatter myself that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion in two hours as you did in two minutes." After Within a few years the bodies of more than 3,500 Union soldiers killed in the battle are reinterred in the cemetery. Following the Civil War, the remains of 3,320 Confederate soldiers were removed from the battlefield to cemeteries in the South. The cemetery is now the final resting place of over 6,000 honorably discharged servicemen and their dependents from the Civil War, Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II and the Vietnam War.

Quiz for Unit 15 Name score I. Match 1. perish a. loud and clear sound to rouse and encourage 2. serene b. lead (a person) to the correct place on a ceremonial or important occasion 3. reposing c. disappear; die 4. benediction d. calm and peaceful 5. auspicious e. more distant 6.perilous f. wise planning for future needs 7.slumber g.from this time on 8. marshal h.passing away, interval 9. din i. say goodbye (farewell is old-fashioned English) 10.sepulcher j. formed mentally (i.e. of an idea) 11. clarion k. devote to, give to 12. remoter l. assertion, principle 13. forethought m. set apart as sacred 14.henceforward n. lying still and restful 15. lapse o. blessing 16.bid farewell p. favourable, .fortunate, reassuring (here) 17. conceive q. very dangerous, risky 18. dedicate r. peaceful sleep 19. proposition s. loud, continuous, and unpleasant 20. consecrate t. burial place, tomb : 

Quiz for Unit 15 Name score I. Match 1. perish a. loud and clear sound to rouse and encourage 2. serene b. lead (a person) to the correct place on a ceremonial or important occasion 3. reposing c. disappear; die 4. benediction d. calm and peaceful 5. auspicious e. more distant 6.perilous f. wise planning for future needs 7.slumber g.from this time on 8. marshal h.passing away, interval 9. din i. say goodbye (farewell is old-fashioned English) 10.sepulcher j. formed mentally (i.e. of an idea) 11. clarion k. devote to, give to 12. remoter l. assertion, principle 13. forethought m. set apart as sacred 14.henceforward n. lying still and restful 15. lapse o. blessing 16.bid farewell p. favourable, .fortunate, reassuring (here) 17. conceive q. very dangerous, risky 18. dedicate r. peaceful sleep 19. proposition s. loud, continuous, and unpleasant 20. consecrate t. burial place, tomb

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II. Paraphrase 1.      the whole earth is the sepulcher of illustrious men     2.      God bless the union, it is dearer to us for the blood of brave men which had been shed in its defense     3.      Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created     4.      We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain.   5.      We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those…..

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III.             Choice 1. He was one of the greatest writers _____ had ever lived. A. who B. which C. that D. 2. He would try to ingratiate himself _____ his clients in order to earn more money. A. into B. with C. for D. from 3. Her address made a great impression _____ the audience. A. at B. of C. in D. on 4. Here is one of the most interesting novels that _____ been published _____ the war. A. has ... after B. have ... after C. have ... since D. has ... since 5. His companions have threatened to _____ his crimes to the police. A. impose B. express C. enclose D. expose 6. His extravagance reduced him _____ for his living. A. to beg B. from begging C. to begging D. into begging 7. His death _____ with age. A. deteriorated B. determined C. detected D. detained

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8. His long service with the company was _____ with a present. A. admitted B. acknowledged C. attributed D. accepted 9. His novel _____ some light on life in China in Ming Dynasty. A. sends B. provides C. throws D. puts 10. His tastes and habits _____ with those of his wife. A. combine B. compete C. coincide D. compromise 11. His wife is quite lazy. Her reluctance to wash her own clothes is a case _____ point. A. in B. on C. to D. for 12. His work is only _____, certainly not distinguished. A. fair B. remarkable C. good D. wonderful 13. Hot metal _____ as it grows cooler. A. contracts B. reduces C. condenses D. compresses 14. Housewives who do not go out to work often feel they are not working to their full _____. A. capacity B. strength C. length D. possibility 15. How close parents are to their children _____ a strong influence on the character of the children. A. has B. have C. having D. to have 1-5 CBDCD 6-10 CABCC 11-15 AAAAA

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