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Cities and Climate Change: 

Cities and Climate Change Dan Hoornweg The World Bank 10 July, 2007


Where the emissions come from Source: WRI, Baumert et al, 2005

The Role of Cities: 

The Role of Cities Likely the world’s most important stakeholder Urbanized world changes things 80% of GHG emissions from or for cities Some infrastructure serving cities has a 50 year operating life (shifting inertia now)


Emissions Figures in million tons CO2e, figures in brackets are for 1990 baseline


Targets All reductions from 1990 levels

Top Sources of Emissions: 

Top Sources of Emissions * SF includes ‘intraregional’ vehicles, others don’t as far as I can tell

Some Common City Initiatives: 

Some Common City Initiatives

Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste: 

Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Water conservation devices rebates/regs Solar Water Heating Water Recycling Deep-lake water cooling Recycling Solid Waste to Biogas, Composting Energy efficient pumps, sludge management

Energy Efficiency: 

Energy Efficiency Rebates on EE devices Green Buildings Guidelines/Regulations/Incentives Energy Audits on Buildings Retrofits for Municipal Buildings Distribution of CFLs Efficiency targets for utilities Building Energy Performance Labeling


Transportation Alternative fuels for municipal fleets Traffic signal synchronisation Transit-Oriented Development Cycling-friendly investment Demand Management/Congestion Charges Emission-related charging Smart parking meters


Energy Solar energy rebates Tidal Energy Smart-metering Targets for Renewable Energy Distributed Generation Preferential Purchasing

Vulnerability of Cities to Climate Change: 

Vulnerability of Cities to Climate Change DIRECT IMPACTS Sea level rise Flooding and landslides Heat waves Increased “heat island effect” Water scarcity Decreasing water quality Worsening air quality Ground ozone formation Djibouti-Ville flooded in April 2004

Vulnerability of Cities to Climate Change: 

Vulnerability of Cities to Climate Change INDIRECT IMPACTS Frequency, intensity of natural disasters Accelerated urbanization Environmental refugees Increased energy demand for heating or cooling Epidemics, worsening public health Availability and pricing of foodstuff Environmental refugees Djibouti, October 2004

Varying degrees of vulnerability: 

Varying degrees of vulnerability Cities in Highly Impacted Regions: tropical, sub-tropical eco-systems, arid and water-stressed countries, island states Coastal Cities: all coastal cities, particularly those in deltaic environments, those with high levels of land-reclamation Cities in Less Developed Countries: where institutional resilience, financial resources and technical capacity are limited

World Bank’s Work Plan: 

World Bank’s Work Plan Operations Review Index of city GHG emissions and energy use (with ICLEI, WEF, Clinton Foundation, etc. – index ready by January 2008) SWOT Teams to pilot cities – next 12 months Targeted studies and ‘honest brokering’, especially for Part 2 cities Start modestly Darwin trumps Descartes, slowly

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