Safetyon theSmall Farm: Safety on the Small Farm Safety Around Livestock: 1 out 6 farm injuries involves animals.
In 1990, 350 out of 2,100 reported farm injuries in Iowa were animal related.
Injuries included bites, kicks, or pinning between the animal and a fixed object.
Injury can be avoided by knowing your animals.
Animals without proper care pose more of a danger to people. Safety Around Livestock Animal Habits: Domesticated animals living under uniform conditions often do the same thing each day.
Learned behavior patterns enable animals to adjust to changes. Most animals have established behavior patterns. Animal Habits Animal Habits : Animals learn to apply one behavior over another according to which one produces the most comfortable situation.
i.e., a cow placed in a milking stanchion can react by trying to break loose or by standing quietly until released. Since the latter produces more comfort, she adopts that behavior. Animal Habits Animal Social Relationships: All animals that live in a herd, or flock can become lonely, depressed, frightened, or agitated if separated.
An animal normally not frightened could become upset when someone approaches it.
This poses a special problem for those who work with cows and horses. Animal Social Relationships Social Relationships : Pay close attention and look for signs that animals may becoming overly excited.
Animals form relationships with caretakers, who need to assume a dominant role in this relationship. Social Relationships Maternal Instincts: All domesticated animals have strong maternal instincts. This occurs abruptly after they give birth.
When nesting begins after birth, sows show signs of excitement, biting walls, fences, or people. They are aggressive.
Experienced farmers recognize these tendencies early, however new farmers, or workers may not. Maternal Instincts Territorial Protection: Domesticated animals try to protect territories as do wild animals.
Feed distributed in large, unpredictable patches will discourage this territorial behavior.
Feed distributed uniformly, or in predictable patterns often results in territorial behavior. Territorial Protection Child Farm Safety: Children can be exposed to dangerous situations 24 hours a day on the farm.
The farm is both a work and home environment for many families.
Without a separation between the two environments, children can be exposed to tremendous risks. Child Farm Safety Set Up Safety Rules: Set Up Safety Rules Designate safe play areas.
Determine other areas that might attract children.
Identify dangers with children.
Be a role model for safe practices. Designate a Play Area: Identify locations where children can play with minimal adult supervision.
Designated areas protect children by isolating them from farm work.
Fencing can help to reinforce the division between work and play.
Provide appropriate play items so that the area is more enticing than the farmstead. Designate a Play Area Determine Other Attractions: Discuss with children where they like to play on the farm and why.
This will help you to identify potential problems and help you to explain why some of these areas are off-limits and dangerous.
Use lots of examples of how children can be injured in your explanation. Determine Other Attractions Identify Hazards: Once the play area has been established, walk with your children through the farming operation and point out potential hazards.
Explain what makes these areas dangerous.
Tour should include machinery and equipment, livestock pens, fields, farm buildings, grain and storage areas, and workshop. Identify Hazards Machinery and Equipment: This area is most dangerous when tractors and other machines are in operation.
Adults may not be able to see or hear others in area.
Children should never enter areas where machinery is in operation unless supervised, or machinery is turned off. Machinery and Equipment Livestock: Children are often fascinated by livestock and may perceive them to be as familiar as stuffed animals to be played with.
Children might not understand or perceive the subtle signs an animal will exhibit just before attacking.
The average difference in body weight between a child and an average farm animal makes crushing injuries common. Livestock Farm Buildings/Workshop: Confined spaces such as silage structures can hold a buildup of toxic gases - smaller amounts of these toxins are needed to cause injury to children than adults.
Workshops and storage areas contain hand tools, chemicals (pesticides, oils, cutting fluids), electrical outlets, sharp or hot items. Farm Buildings/Workshop Match Age, Abilities to Farm Chores: In 1992, 679 Iowa youth under 19 were injured in farm related accidents, 13 died.
More than half of these injuries were work related. In the 16-19 age group, 3/4 of the injuries occurred doing chores. Match Age, Abilities to Farm Chores Match Age, Abilitiesto Farm Chores: Causes of injury vary with age; 18% were the result of farm animals, 16% were related to machinery, and 14% were caused by a fall or slip.
Most accidents occur when a child is doing something that is beyond their mental, physical, or emotional abilities. Match Age, Abilities to Farm Chores Toddler/Preschool (0-5 yrs.): Most injuries from: slips/falls, animals, and machinery.
Use physical barriers, locks, fences.
Provide safe distractions.
Prohibit riding on machinery. Toddler/Preschool (0-5 yrs.) Early School (5-10 yrs.): Early School (5-10 yrs.) Most injuries from: slips/falls, being struck by an object, and machinery.
Provide constant rules.
Discuss safe behavior.
Assign simple farm chores with careful supervision. Older School (10-13 yrs.): Most injuries from: animals, machinery, and recreational vehicles.
Enforce consistent rules with consequences and rewards.
Expose youth to machinery by letting them help with maintenance.
Talk to peers who have been hurt in farm accidents. Older School (10-13 yrs.) Adolescence (13-16 yrs.): Most injuries from: animals, machinery, power tools, and slips/falls.
Enforce consistent rules.
Begin tractor training, supervised use of tractors.
Encourage safety projects in 4-H, FFA
Be a role model. Adolescence (13-16 yrs.) Young Adult (16-18 yrs.): Most injuries from: animals, machinery, power tools, and slips/falls.
Use clear, consistent rules regarding drugs and alcohol.
Reward acceptance of adult responsibilities.
Provide opportunity to be a role model in safety. Young Adult (16-18 yrs.) Lawnmower Safety: U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that 57,000 operators and bystanders are injured each year in mower related accidents
Lawnmower safety is important on farms where mowing large areas is common Lawnmower Safety Lawnmower Safety : Lawnmower Safety Often one of the first farm chores delegated to young family members is mowing.
Since mowing consumes so much time and routinely involves inexperienced operators, safety is a real concern. Mower Hazards: The cutting edge of the mower blade travels at a speed of 200 mph.
Items struck by the blade can be projectiles travelling at 200 mph as they are thrown out from the mower.
The hot muffler and cylinder heads of the mower’s engine can cause serious burns.
Gasoline is dangerous; one gal. can equal 83 lbs. of dynamite and is very flammable. Mower Hazards Use Safe Mowing Techniques: Make sure other people, especially children, are out of the area.
Never point the discharge chute at anyone.
Do not mow wet grass.
Use care on inclines.
Never leave a running mower unattended.
Disconnect spark plug wire for service. Use Safe Mowing Techniques Some Safe Mowing Practices: Prepare field/lawn for mowing - check the area for objects that could be struck by the mower blade. - Be sure to look carefully through tall grass.
Handle fuel with care - always use care when filling the tank. - never fill a hot tank. - wipe up spills. Some Safe Mowing Practices Safe Mowing Practices : Safe Mowing Practices Wear appropriate clothing - close fitting clothes are less likely to get caught in moving parts. - long pants protect you from flying objects. - leather shoe provide more protection and are less likely to slip than canvas shoes. - ear plugs are a good idea. First AidBe Trained and Ready: When a farm accident occurs, it’s important to act quickly and have the right materials at hand.
Every farm family should have a first aid kit.
A complete kit should be in every work area such as the tractor, shop, kitchen.
Being prepared can be critical in saving a limb. First Aid Be Trained and Ready This is how you can tell the difference between venomous and nonvenomous snakes.: This is how you can tell the difference between venomous and nonvenomous snakes. Round Cat Arrow Rounder This is a feared snake in our area.: This is a feared snake in our area. This is the venomous copperhead.
Note the hourglass shaped dark bands on it.
This is a southern copperhead. Northern copperheads are darker in color. Recognize this snake?Doesn’t it look a lot like the baby black snake?: Recognize this snake? Doesn’t it look a lot like the baby black snake? This is a baby copperhead.
Note the yellow tip on the tail.
It is still venomous. Note the hour glass markings Baby Black Rat Snake These snakes are rare, but can be found in this area, what are they?: These snakes are rare, but can be found in this area, what are they? Timber Rattlesnakes
Yes, they are very venomous and are considered to be the most dangerous snakes around here. What to do if you are bitten by a venomous snake.: What to do if you are bitten by a venomous snake. Stay calm and call for help.
Squeeze venom gently from bite and suck it out.
Mark symptoms, especially swelling.
Keep the bitten area below the heart.
Note the type of snake.
Get to the hospital.
Get a tetanus shot. Exposure: How Pesticides Enter the Body: Eyes
Dermal (skin) Exposure: How Pesticides Enter the Body Pesticides can cause 3 types of harmful effects.: Pesticides can cause 3 types of harmful effects. Acute (immediate)
Allergic (sensitivity) Pesticide Toxicity: A pesticide’s toxicity can be determined by its LD50.
LD50 = Lethal Dose 50%, the amount of pesticide to kill 50% of the test animals.
Expressed in mg of pesticide to kg of body wt., the higher the LD50 the less toxic the pesticide.
LD50 12 is more toxic than LD50 950. Pesticide Toxicity The Pesticide Product Label: EPA labels pesticides.
READ THE LABEL.
Tells everything you need to know to use that product correctly and safely.
It is against the law to use a pesticide. product in a manner not listed on the label.
Pesticides are classified as general use or restricted. The Pesticide Product Label Pesticide Label: Precautionary Statements: Caution : slightly toxic, or relatively non-toxic
Warning : moderately toxic
Danger- Poison : highly toxic Pesticide Label: Precautionary Statements The Pesticide Label Contains:: First aid instructions
Hazards to humans and animals
Personal protective equipment
Worker protection standards
Physical or chemical hazards
Directions for use
Labeled pests, uses
Entry time, storage and disposal The Pesticide Label Contains: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Label tells you what is needed.
Protect the 4 areas of entry.
Select appropriate PPE and use it correctly
Keep it clean, in good condition.
Triple wash clothing in hot water and liquid detergent. Wash them yourself, don’t dump on someone else, or wash with the family clothes. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Keep These Numbers Handy: Keep These Numbers Handy In case of an exposure call:
Maryland Poison Control Center
In case of a spill call:
1-800-424-9300 Slide44: Please make farm safety a priority.