The United States and the Second World War

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The United States and the Second World War: 

The United States and the Second World War 1939-1945

Franklin Roosevelt: 

Franklin Roosevelt Foreign Policy, free trade and disarmament. Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, 1934 The Good Neighbor Policy, Inaugural Address, 1933 The Montevideo Conference, Uruguay, 1933 no nation had the right to intervene in the affairs of another state in the Western Hemisphere. Inter-American Conference, Buenos Aries, 1936, support of Monroe Doctrine, nations to resist attacks from abroad. 1934- Congress nullifies the Platt Amendment, U.S. controls Guantanamo Bay

Foreign Policy : 

Foreign Policy Soviet Union: In exchange for notes between Roosevelt and Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov, U.S. agreed to normal diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934, Philippines will be independent by 1946, gradual removal of U.S. military promised.

A Changing World: 

A Changing World A fear of communism, the severe economic dislocation arising from the exacting peace terms at the end of WWI, and the global depression of the late 20’s and 30’s opens the door to Fascism, National Socialism and Militarism Germany, German workers find a leader in Adolf Hitler, and the National German Socialist Workers Party. Italy, Fascism takes root during the early 20’s, Benito Mussolini is dictator. Japan, Militarists and Nationalists gain control, convince emperor Hirohito that invasion of China and Southeast Asia was necessary for economic survival, raw materials. Hideki Tojo Spain, Civil War 1936-39, General Francisco Franco leads fascist rebels against the democratically led Republican government. Germany and Italy lend support to Franco, Soviet Union gives aid to the Loyalists. Abraham Lincoln Brigade.

Pre-War Aggression : 

Pre-War Aggression Germany, builds up its military, Air Force Luftwaffe is created, invades Austria, Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) 1938, and the Rhineland, 1936 Italy, invades Albania and Ethiopia, 1935 Japan, invades Manchuria in 1931, Northern China and the China Coast , War with Chinese Nationals led by Chiang-Kai Shek.

U.S. Response to the Pre-war aggression: 

U.S. Response to the Pre-war aggression The Nye Report, 1934- U.S. entrance into WWI was due to pressure by International Bankers and Arms Manufacturers Neutrality Act of 1935: president could prohibit arms shipments and forbid American citizens to travel on ships of belligerent nations Neutrality Act of 1936: forbade the extension of loans and credits to belligerents Neutrality Act of 1937: forbade the shipment of arms to the opposing sides in the Spanish Civil War. Munich Conference and Appeasement, France and G.B. allow Hitler to move into the German speaking sections of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) but Hitler had to assure that he would not interfere with Czechoslovakian sovereignty again. 1938, Roosevelt makes a commitment to preparedness, defense spending increased.

WWII Begins: 

WWII Begins March 1939, Hitler invades all of Czechoslovakia, Munich Agreement broken August 1939- Nazi-Soviet Treaty, non-aggression, Poland would be split, Soviets would take the Baltic States and Bessarabia from Rumania September 1, 1939, Poland Invaded, BLITZKRIEG September 17, 1939 Soviet Union invades Poland, and by 1940 occupied Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Invaded Finland 1940 Germany invades France, Denmark, and Norway, Airbases, closer to G.B. Invades Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg. Dunkirk- British and French Armies retreat and escape, 200,000 British and 100,000 French soldiers saved by Britons Hitler invade France through Belgium, Mussolini invaded southern France on June 10th. Vichy France, Marshall Henri Philippe Petain

The Battle of Britain : 

The Battle of Britain Fall of France left G.B. Isolated May 1940 Winston Churchill replaces Chamberlin as the Prime Minister, refuses to compromise with Hitler. August 1940 Luftwaffe attacks British airfields in Southeastern England September 1940, Luftwaffe begins bombing raids on London, lasted every night for 2 months. 15,000 killed. Royal Air Force- inflicted heavy losses on the Luftwaffe, destroying 2 times as many planes as they lost. Hitler forced to scuttle his plans for an invasion of G.B.

German Attack on Russia: 

German Attack on Russia Lebensraum, “living space” May 15, 1941 Hitler orders generals to attack Russia Operation Barbarossa, destroy Russia before Winter Mussolini, upset with Hitler, takes on the British in Egypt and invades Greece by way of Albania. Italians were forced into Libya by the British and the Greeks pushed into Albania. Hitler forced to give attention to the Balkans and North Africa, sends Gen. Erwin Rommel. Costs the Germans six weeks. Operation Barbarossa, June 22, 1941, by November German troops were at the gates of Leningrad, Russia had lost 2.5 million of its 4.5 million troops, 14,300 tanks, and thousands of planes. Terrible winter destroys the German Army, no invasion of Moscow. The Battle of Stalingrad, summer 1942

The Participants: 

The Participants Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Finland Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Soviet Union, China, India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Brazil, United States*

Axis Aggression through 1941 (p. 913): 

Axis Aggression through 1941 (p. 913)

The United States: 

The United States War takes its toll on Europe, FDR begins to change policy, Pro-British Cash and Carry, a belligerent could pay in cash for U.S. arms Selective Service Act, 1940, registration of all men ages 21-35 and to train 1.2 million men. Isolationists upset. Destroyers for Bases deal, U.S. gives G.B. 50 older destroyers in exchange military bases in the Caribbean

Election of 1940: 

Election of 1940 FDR Democrat Wendell Willkie, IN, Republican Willkie, favored taking a hard line with Hitler, favored a draft, attacked Roosevelt for running for a third term FDR, pledged to keep the U.S. out of the war Roosevelt wins, strong economy and familiar face in a time of uncertainty are believed to be two major factors.

Election 1940 Results: 

Election 1940 Results

FDR and the War: 

FDR and the War 6 January 1941 Four Freedoms, speech, religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear. Lend-Lease Act, March 1941, U.S. to extend credit to G.B. for buying weapons. Atlantic Charter, FDR and Churchill: War Aims 1. No extension of territory. 2. Territorial self determination. 3. Destruction of Nazism. 4. International Organization to promote world peace.

U.S. and Japan: 

U.S. and Japan July 1941, Japan invades and occupies Indochina. U.S. responds by freezing Japanese Assets and cut off oil supplies; Japanese plans for expansion could not continue without the conquest of Indonesian oil fields and Malayan rubber and Tin. The United States was in the way October 1941, Hideki Tojo, gains control of military operations December 7, 1941 Japanese representatives in Washington D.C., air attack launched on Pearl Harbor, Island of Oahu December 8, 1941 United States declares war on Japan. December 11, 1941 Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. Japanese quickly take Guam, Wake Island and the Philippines

Mobilization for War: 

Mobilization for War War time Economy, consumer goods to war materiel War Production Board, managed war industries, set production priorities, pushed maximum output Office of Price Administration, froze prices, wages, and rents, rationed meat, sugar, gasoline, and tires. Financing the War, increased income tax, selling war bonds. Office of War Information, controlled news about troop movements and battles.

War and Society: 

War and Society African Americans- Double V Campaign, victory over fascism and victory for equality, over a million in the military Mexican Americans, over 300,000 in the military. Braceros, Zoot Suit Riots Native Americans, 25,000 in the military Japanese Americans, 20,000 served in the military, Internment camps Wyoming, Arizona, and Colorado Women over 200,000 served in the military, close to 5 million joined the workforce.

The United States: 

The United States North Africa, Sicily and Italy British field marshal Bernard Montgomery stopped Rommel at El Alamein, and then drove west Operation Torch: Allied forces landed in French North Africa, Eisenhower pushed eastward through Morocco and Algeria, caught the Germans in Tunisia. Now controlled the Mediterranean July and August 1943 Allies took Sicily Allies land in Italy, Mussolini is deposed Italy joins the Allies

The United States: 

The United States The War in Western Europe, 1943 Strategic Bombing Campaign U.S. Precision Bombing: Bombing of military and industrial targets vital to the war effort, done during the day. G.B. Area Bombing: destroy the morale of the German people, done at night February 1945, Bombing of Dresden


D-Day Operation Overlord Secure the Normandy Coast for Allied Invasion Area would provide the most direct overland route to Germany, also the most heavily fortified. Sword = G.B. Juno = Canada Gold = G.B. Omaha = U.S. Utah = U.S.

The Battle of the Bulge: 

The Battle of the Bulge The Battle of Ardennes, (Belgium) 16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945 German forces intended to split the Allied line. G.B. and U.S. had 83,000 men. Germany over 200,000 G.B. and U.S. 80,987 casualties(10,276 dead, 23,218 missing, 47,493 wounded) Germany 84,834 casualties (15,652 dead, 27,582 missing, 41,600 wounded Allies keep moving into German Territory

End of the War in Europe: 

End of the War in Europe April 25, 1945 Soviet and U.S. troops meet at Torgau, on the Elbe River. April 30, 1945 Hitler Commits suicide May 2, 1945 Battle of Berlin ends May 7, 1945 Rheims, France, surrender documents signed. May 8, 1945 Victory in Europe

The European Theater of World War II, 1942-1945: 

The European Theater of World War II, 1942-1945

War time Conferences: 

War time Conferences Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers, October 1943, G.B., USSR, U.S. Future of Poland, invasion of France, Peace keeping organization Tehran, November 1943, Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt D-Day, Stalin will join war in Asia, Peace keeping organization Bretton Woods, July 1944, International Monetary Fund Dumbarton Oaks, August-October 1944 Drafted Plans for the U.N.

War time Conferences: 

War time Conferences Yalta, February 1945 The Big Three Divide Germany into 4 military zones of occupation Free elections in Poland Broadly Represented interim governments Worked out procedures for the U/N. Agreed to a conference in San Francisco Secret Agreements in exchange for entering the war against Japan and alliance with China Stalin received the following: 1. Independence for Mongolian People’s Republic, under Soviet protection. 2. Possession of the Kurile Islands, part of Sakhalin Island, Occupation Zone in Korea, rights in Manchuria Potsdam, July – August 1945 Agreed to policies for the occupation and administration of Germany, Disarmament and denazification, democratization, reparation payments Potsdam declaration, called for Japan’s unconditional Surrender.

Japanese Aggression through 1941: 

Japanese Aggression through 1941

The War in the Pacific: 

The War in the Pacific

The War in the Pacific: 

The War in the Pacific 1942 Japan Occupied: Korea, Eastern China, the Philippines, British Burma, Malaya, French Indochina, Indonesia, many islands west of Midway Island May 7 – 8, 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea Japan threatens New Zealand and Australia, looking to maintain a stranglehold on the Solomon Islands United States and Australia hold off the Japanese attack. No real victor, sets the stage for Midway

The War in the Pacific, Midway June 4-7, 1942: 

The War in the Pacific, Midway June 4-7, 1942 The United States Commanders: Chester Nimitz, Frank Fletcher, Raymond Spruance Strength: Three carriers, about 50 support ships 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft Casualties:1 carrier, 1 destroyer sunk; 307 killed Destruction of 4 carriers means that the U.S. can now go on the offensive. Crushing defeat for the Japanese Japan, plan to destroy U.S. carriers, under the impression that they would only have to deal with two carriers. Commanders: Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi Strength: Four carriers, about 150 support ships 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties: 4 carriers, 1 cruiser sunk; 3,057 killed

The War in the Pacific: 

The War in the Pacific Island Hopping Campaign- isolate Japanese strongholds using Naval and air power, seize strategic islands along the Japanese supply line. Begins August 1942, Marines land at Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, Gilbert and Marshall Islands, 23-26 October 1944 Invasion of the Philippines, Battle of Leyte Gulf, Japanese navy just about destroyed February and March 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima, Mount Suribachi, U.S. Casualties 6,821 dead19,000 wounded Japanese Casualties 20,500 dead 200 captured Battle of Okinawa, March – June 1945, largest sea-land battle in history, Last major battle of the war. U.S. Casualties: 12,500 killed or missing 38,000 wounded 33,096 non-combat wounded 38 ships lost 763 aircraft lost Japanese Casualties: 110,000 killed 7,455 captured 16 ships lost 7,800 aircraft lost

The War in the Pacific: 

The War in the Pacific Atomic Warfare After victory at Okinawa, U.S. troops prep to invade Japan. Roosevelt died in April, Harry Truman now President. Japanese still had over 6 million reserves, 5000 kamikaze aircraft, Americans believed an invasion would cost at least 250,000 American lives. Truman calls on Japan to an unconditional surrender. Japan refuses August 6, 1945 the U.S. Air Force drops “Little Boy”, from the Enola Gay over Hiroshima. August 7, 1945 Soviets invade Manchuria August 9, 1945 U.S. drops “Fat Man” over Nagasaki. September 2, 1945 Tokyo Bay, Japan signs formal instrument of surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri


WWII IMPACT American Casualties: 292,000 killed in action, 115,000 other deaths, 672,000 wounded. Overall military deaths estimated at 15 million, with at least as many civilians killed, include other deaths the toll rises up to 40 million Holocaust- Extermination and Concentration camps, Germany and Poland 6 million Jewish people killed. Nuremberg Trials 1945-46 United Nations, San Francisco Conference, 1945

U.S. World Power: 

U.S. World Power New Challenges faced the United States Safeguard its security and National interests against powerful and unfriendly nations Help protect the sovereignty of the nations of Europe, Latin America, and Asia without provoking hostile relations with them or the Communist Bloc Establish ties to newly independent nations of Asia and Africa Balance the cost of domestic programs with defense needs.

Truman Administration: 

Truman Administration Truman Doctrine: I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Containment: rather than liberating those countries already in the grip of Communism, the United States tried to keep it from spreading Creation of NATO: U.S., Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, G.B., Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and later Greece and Turkey; form a front against Soviet Aggression. Korean War, 1950-53: Invasion of South Korea by North Korean communist forces in June of 1950 Red Scare and McCarthyism Fair Deal Assassination Attempt, 1 November 1950 XXII Amendment – Two term limit

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