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By: silkyD (142 month(s) ago)

Hey .... I like the way your slides illustrate the history. Do you feel I can get a complete copy? It will help me a lot to understand some of the Spanish and Americas history. Kind regards

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Lone Star: The Story of Texas: 

Lone Star: The Story of Texas Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Lone Star: The Story of Texas: 

Lone Star: The Story of Texas Section 1: Missions and Presidios Section 2: Life in the Missions Section 3: Filibusters and Unrest in Texas Section 4: Mexican Independence Chapter 4: Spanish Rule in Texas: 1682 - 1821 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Missions and Presidios: 

Missions and Presidios What was the purpose of the mission-presidio system? How successful was the Tejas mission in East Texas? How did St. Denis help the Spanish mission system grow? Why did the Spanish build missions for the Lipan Apaches in Central Texas? Chapter 4, Section 1

The Mission-Presidio System: 

The Mission-Presidio System Mission - a settlement in Indian territory The goal of the mission was to transform Native Americans into Christians and loyal Spanish subjects. Friars ran the missions. They invited Indians to live there, then taught them about Christianity and the language and customs of Spain. They also taught them Spanish farming methods. Presidio - a fort designed to protect the mission from unfriendly Indians and to help control the Native Americans inside the mission Chapter 4, Section 1

The First Missions in Texas: 

The First Missions in Texas The First Missions Alonso de León and Father Damian Massanet established the first mission in East Texas, called San Francisco de los Tejas. Shortly after, friars started a second mission in East Texas named Santísimo Nombre de María. At first the local Tejas Indians welcomed the Spanish and their missions. But that quickly changed. Mission Failure The Tejas Indians never fully accepted the friars’ teachings. Spanish soldiers treated them with contempt. Many Indians became sick with diseases carried by the Spanish. When floods destroyed the Indians’ crops, they blamed the Spanish and plotted to kill them. The Spanish abandoned the missions and headed west. Chapter 4, Section 1

Missions in the 1700s: 

Missions in the 1700s A Frenchman named St. Denis, worked with a Spanish missionary, Father Hidalgo, to help build more missions among the Caddo Indians in East Texas. They established six missions and a presidio. One of these missions, Los Adaes, became the capital of the province of Texas. In 1719, the French raided Los Adaes in an attack known as the Chicken War. This attack forced the Spanish to abandon their East Texas missions once again. They retreated to San Antonio de Valero, a mission located halfway between the Rio Grande and East Texas. When the war between Spain and France ended, the Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo helped Spain regain control of East Texas. He rebuilt old missions and founded new ones, including La Bahía. Chapter 4, Section 1

Missions in Central Texas: 

Missions in Central Texas Spanish missions in Central Texas were often raided by Lipan Apaches, Comanches, Wichitas, and Tonkawas. In 1749, the Lipans and the Spanish made peace. The Lipans agreed to convert to Christianity if the Spanish would protect them from the Comanches. The Spanish built a mission, Santa Cruz de San Sabá, for the Lipans. They did not realize it was in Comanche territory. The Lipans had told them to build there, hoping to start a war between the Comanches and the Spanish. In 1758, Comanches, Wichitas, and Tonkawas burned down the mission and killed the missionaries. Chapter 4, Section 1

Missions and Presidios - Assessment: 

Missions and Presidios - Assessment What is the purpose of a presidio? (A) To protect settlers’ land rights (B) To teach Christianity to local peoples (C) To provide a place for settlers to trade goods (D) To protect a mission Why did the Lipans want Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission built on Comanche land? (A) They believed the land truly belonged to the Lipan Apaches. (B) They wanted to start a war between the Spanish and the Comanches. (C) They wanted to convert the Comanches to Christianity. (D) They did not know the land belonged to the Comanches. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 4, Section 1

Missions and Presidios - Assessment: 

Missions and Presidios - Assessment What is the purpose of a presidio? (A) To protect settlers’ land rights (B) To teach Christianity to local peoples (C) To provide a place for settlers to trade goods (D) To protect a mission Why did the Lipans want Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission built on Comanche land? (A) They believed the land truly belonged to the Lipan Apaches. (B) They wanted to start a war between the Spanish and the Comanches. (C) They wanted to convert the Comanches to Christianity. (D) They did not know the land belonged to the Comanches. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 4, Section 1

Life in the Missions: 

Life in the Missions What was daily life like for residents of the missions and presidios? What major problems challenged the missions and presidios? Why did the mission-presidio system decline? How did a unique blend of cultures arise in Texas? Chapter 4, Section 2

Native Americans and Soldiers in the Missions: 

Native Americans and Soldiers in the Missions Recruiting Native Americans Most Indians who lived in the missions joined by choice. Friars sometimes offered gifts to draw in the Indians. Some came for a steady supply of food or for protection from their enemies. The Indians were controlled once they entered the mission. They were punished for bad behavior, and those that ran off were captured and returned. Soldiers’ Lives Presidio soldiers had many duties: Guard the mission livestock Carry messages Protect supply wagon trains Keep order in the missions Protect the mission from hostile Indians Chapter 4, Section 2

Daily Life in the Mission: 

Daily Life in the Mission Native Americans in the missions studied the catechism, a set of questions and answers about Catholic beliefs. Many were converted and baptized. Native Americans had to work in the missions. In addition to daily chores, they made goods that could be traded. The Spanish appointed some mission Indians to be local chiefs. These local chiefs carried out the orders of the missionaries. Indians were not allowed to use guns. They could vote in local elections and hold public office. Chapter 4, Section 2

Problems With the Mission-Presidio System: 

Problems With the Mission-Presidio System Disease - Indians had no defense against Spanish diseases. Epidemics, the rapid spread of diseases in a short time, killed thousands of Native Americans in Texas. Indian rejection of mission life - Many Indians rejected life in the missions. Different uses of the missions - Many joined the missions for protection against their enemies or for food, not because they wanted to follow the Christian faith. Problems at the presidio - Soldiers were underpaid and poorly treated by officers. The friars and the soldiers often argued over how to treat the Indians. Chapter 4, Section 2

Decline of the Mission-Presidio System: 

Decline of the Mission-Presidio System When France lost the Seven Years’ War against Great Britain, it ceded the territory of Louisiana to Spain. Spain sent the Marqués de Rubí to Texas in 1767 to review its colonies in North America. Rubí reported that Spanish power was spread too thin in Texas to be effective. On the basis of that report, Spain closed most of the missions and presidios in Texas. By the 1770s, only those in the area of San Antonio and La Bahía remained. Spanish settlers were directed to move to those outposts. Cede - to give up formal ownership of something Chapter 4, Section 2

Legacy of the Missions and Presidios: 

Legacy of the Missions and Presidios Parts of the Spanish culture took root in Texas. The unique blend of cultures found in Texas is termed Tejano. The Spanish introduced the ranching industry to Texas. Many places in Texas received Spanish names that are still in use today. Every major river in Texas, except for one, has a Spanish name. The Spanish outposts of San Antonio and La Bahía, along with the town of Nacogdoches, remained major Spanish settlements in Texas. Chapter 4, Section 2

Life in the Missions - Assessment: 

Life in the Missions - Assessment Why did Native Americans join the missions? (A) They wanted a steady food supply and protection from their enemies. (B) They wanted to feel closer to God. (C) They had no other choice. (D) They wanted to fit in with their new Anglo neighbors. Why did France cede Louisiana to Spain? (A) To improve relations between the two countries (B) To keep Spain from attacking their forts (C) It was a trade for San Antonio. (D) To keep it from falling into British hands Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 4, Section 2

Life in the Missions - Assessment: 

Life in the Missions - Assessment Why did Native Americans join the missions? (A) They wanted a steady food supply and protection from their enemies. (B) They wanted to feel closer to God. (C) They had no other choice. (D) They wanted to fit in with their new Anglo neighbors. Why did France cede Louisiana to Spain? (A) To improve relations between the two countries (B) To keep Spain from attacking their forts (C) It was a trade for San Antonio. (D) To keep it from falling into British hands Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 4, Section 2

Filibusters and Unrest in Texas: 

Filibusters and Unrest in Texas Why was Spanish control over Texas weak in the early 1800s? Who were the filibusters? Why did people in Mexico begin to rebel against Spanish rule? How did filibusters take advantage of this rebellion for their own purpose? Chapter 4, Section 3

Threats to Spanish Control: 

Threats to Spanish Control In the early 1800s, Comanches, Apaches, and other tribes controlled most of Texas, except for the Spanish cities of Nacogdoches, San Antonio, and La Bahía. In 1803, France sold Louisiana to the United States. For years, the United States and Spain argued over whether or not Texas was part of the Louisiana Territory. In 1810, Mexico began a ten-year struggle with Spain over its independence. Chapter 4, Section 3 Several factors weakened Spain’s control over Texas:

Early Filibusters: 

Early Filibusters Filibuster - a person who wages an unofficial war on a country for his own benefit: Philip Nolan - Nolan claimed he was capturing and selling wild horses in Texas for the Spanish government. The Spanish worried about Nolan’s ties to the United States. They attacked and killed Nolan. General James Wilkinson - Spain hired Wilkinson, a United States Army general, as a double agent. Wilkinson plotted with Aaron Burr to take Kentucky and Louisiana from the United States and start an independent country. The plot failed. Chapter 4, Section 3

Unrest in Mexico: 

Unrest in Mexico New Spain (Mexico) resented Spain’s control: Taxes - Residents of New Spain did not like paying taxes to support the king and his many wars. Poverty - Spain’s class system kept most New Spain residents in poverty. The Cry of Dolores A priest from Dolores, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, began a revolt to end the power of the peninsulares (upper class, Spaniards born in Europe) in New Spain. The criollos, (Spaniards born in America) refused to support the revolt. The lower classes, the mestizos (mixed Spanish and Native American heritage) and the Native Americans joined Hidalgo in the revolt. Though this revolt failed, it led to other uprisings in New Spain. Chapter 4, Section 3

Key Filibuster Expeditions: 

Key Filibuster Expeditions Chapter 4, Section 3 Lieutenant Augustus Magee Left the United States Army and formed an army of men to free Texas from Spanish rule Samuel Kemper Took command of Magee’s army upon his death Declared the state of Texas independent Hoped to make Texas part of the United States Bernardo Gutiérrez Wanted Texas to be part of Mexico Created a Mexican state constitution for Texas Was driven out by Kemper Dr. James Long Disagreed with the U.S. decision to turn Texas over to Spain Led a group to free Texas from Spanish rule

Filibusters and Unrest in Texas - Assessment: 

Filibusters and Unrest in Texas - Assessment What is a filibuster? (A) A politician who fights for settlers’ rights (B) A person who leads settlers into new territory (C) A person who wages an unofficial war on a country for his or her own benefit (D) A person who settles land disputes between countries How did Spain’s class system contribute to the poverty in New Spain? (A) The lower class had to pay taxes to the upper class. (B) Upper class peninsulares and criollos got the best jobs. (C) Mestizos and Native Americans were not allowed to earn money. (D) None of the above Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 4, Section 3

Filibusters and Unrest in Texas - Assessment: 

Filibusters and Unrest in Texas - Assessment What is a filibuster? (A) A politician who fights for settlers’ rights (B) A person who leads settlers into new territory (C) A person who wages an unofficial war on a country for his or her own benefit (D) A person who settles land disputes between countries How did Spain’s class system contribute to the poverty in New Spain? (A) The lower class had to pay taxes to the upper class. (B) Upper class peninsulares and criollos got the best jobs. (C) Mestizos and Native Americans were not allowed to earn money. (D) None of the above Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 4, Section 3

Mexican Independence: 

Mexican Independence How did Father Morelos keep the dream of Mexican independence alive? How did events in Spain lead to Mexican independence? What challenges did Mexico face after independence? Chapter 4, Section 4

Mexico Works for Independence: 

Mexico Works for Independence José María Morelos y Pavón led a movement for freedom from Spain. In 1814, he issued a declaration of independence and drew up plans for a Mexican republic. He won control of large areas of southern New Spain. Most of his supporters were people from the lower classes. He was killed by government forces in 1815. It would be several years before Mexico’s rebel spirits would rise again. Republic - In a republic, citizens elect representatives to make laws. Chapter 4, Section 4

Spanish Events Influence Mexico: 

Spanish Events Influence Mexico Peace in Spain When French troops were driven from Spain, King Ferdinand IV took back his throne. For several years, people in New Spain seemed willing to accept the old ways of royal rule. But in 1816, the king cancelled the Constitution of 1812. That constitution limited his power and gave rights to the Spanish people. Changes in Spain Spanish people demanded the return of the constitution. This forced the king to accept a new system of government in Spain. Now, some of the power rested with the people. The upper classes in New Spain worried what would happen if the common people gained too much power. These conservatives wanted to limit changes and keep the old ways. Chapter 4, Section 4

The Causes and Effects of the Mission-Presidio System in Texas: 

The Causes and Effects of the Mission-Presidio System in Texas Chapter 4, Section 4

Independent Mexico: 

Independent Mexico The Plan of Iguala - The conservatives’ leader, Agustín de Iturbide and rebel leader Vicente R. Guerrero agreed on the Plan of Iguala in 1821. Mexico would become an independent nation. Peninsulares and criollos would be equal. The Catholic Church would keep its power. With this plan, Spain lost control of New Spain. On August 24, 1821, the Treaty of Córdoba made Mexico an independent nation. Chapter 4, Section 4

Mexican Independence - Assessment: 

Mexican Independence - Assessment What characteristic fits conservatives? (A) They like to make changes. (B) They don’t like changes and prefer the old ways. (C) They rebel against existing rules. (D) They will try anything once. What did the Treaty of Córdoba do? (A) It made criollos and peninsulares equal. (B) It ended the mission-presidio system. (C) It gave more power to the people of Spain. (D) It made Mexico an independent nation. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 4, Section 4

Mexican Independence - Assessment: 

Mexican Independence - Assessment What characteristic fits conservatives? (A) They like to make changes. (B) They don’t like changes and prefer the old ways. (C) They rebel against existing rules. (D) They will try anything once. What did the Treaty of Córdoba do? (A) It made criollos and peninsulares equal. (B) It ended the mission-presidio system. (C) It gave more power to the people of Spain. (D) It made Mexico an independent nation. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 4, Section 4

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