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Dabbling in Pedagogy: A Series of Serious E-Learning Research Results Curtis J. Bonk Indiana University and

Brains Before and After E-learning: 

Brains Before and After E-learning Before After And when use synchronous and asynchronous tools

Problems and Solutions: 

Problems and Solutions Tasks Overwhelm Confused on Web Too Nice Due to Limited Share History Lack Justification Hard not to preach Too much data Communities not easy to form Train and be clear Structure time/dates due Develop roles and controversies Train to back up claims Students take lead role Use Email Pals Embed Informal/Social

Benefits and Implications: 

Benefits and Implications Shy open up online Minimal off task Delayed collab more rich than real time Students can generate lots of info Minimal disruptions Extensive E-Advice Excited to Publish Use async conferencing Create social tasks Use Async for debates; Sync for help, office hours Structure generation and force reflection/comment Foster debates/critique Find Practitioners/Experts Ask Permission

New Theories: 

New Theories Situated Learning--asserts that learning is most effective in authentic, or real world, contexts with problems that allow students to generate their own solution paths (Brown, Collins, andamp; Duguid, 1989). Constructivism--concerned with learner's actual act of creating meaning (Brooks, 1990). The constructivist argues that the child's mind actively constructs relationships and ideas; hence, meaning is derived from negotiating, generating, and linking concepts within a community of peers (Harel andamp; Papert, 1991).

Asynchronous Possibilities: 

Asynchronous Possibilities 1. Link to peers and mentors. 2. Expand and link to alternative resources. 3. Involve in case-based reasoning. 4. Connect students in field to the class. 5. Provide e-mail assistance. 6. Bring experts to teach at any time. 7. Provide exam preparation. 8. Foster small group work. 9. Engage in electronic discussions andamp; writing. 10. Structure electronic role play.

Pedagogical Actualities: 

Pedagogical Actualities Teacher-Created Cases Student-Created Cases Online Mentoring Starter-Wrapper Discussions Field Reflections Reading Reactions Debates (Teacher and Student Created) Critical Friend Activities Web Buddies Synchronous Group Problem Solving

What Are the Goals?: 

What Are the Goals? Making connections through cases. Appreciating different perspectives. Students as teachers. Greater depth of discussion. Fostering critical thinking online. Interactivity online. Understand different ways to foster interaction.

Electronic Conferencing: Quantitative Analyses: 

Electronic Conferencing: Quantitative Analyses Usage patterns, # of messages, cases, responses Length of case, thread, response Average number of responses Timing of cases, commenting, responses, etc. Types of interactions (1:1; 1: many) Data mining (logins, peak usage, location, session length, paths taken, messages/day/week), Time-Series Analyses (trends)

Electronic Conferencing: Qualitative Analyses: 

Electronic Conferencing: Qualitative Analyses General: Observation Logs, Reflective interviews, Retrospective Analyses, Focus Groups Specific: Semantic Trace Analyses, Talk/Dialogue Categories (Content talk, q’ing, peer fdbk, social acknowledgments, off task) Emergent: Forms of Learning Assistance, Levels of Questioning, Degree of Perspective Taking, Case Quality, Participant Categories



Chong, 1998


Cooney, 1998


Cooney, 1998

Research on Electronic Cases: 

Research on Electronic Cases 1. RT vs. Delayed Collab Groups Preset by Major Tchr Generated Cases Local/Univ. Networks Limited Instructor Mentoring 2. Web-Based Conference Grps Formed on Interest Student Gen. Cases World Wide Web Extensive Instructor and Peer Mentoring


Delayed Collaboration andgt; Elaboration 1,287 words/interaction vs. 266 words/interaction Real-time Collaboration andgt; Responses 5.1 comments/person/case vs. 3.3 comments/person Low off-task behaviors (about 10%)

Example of real-time dialogue:: 

Example of real-time dialogue: Come on Jaime!! You're a slacker. Just take a guess. (October 26, 1993, Time: 11:08:57, Ellen Lister, Group 5). How might he deal with these students? Well, he might flunk them. He might make them sit in the corner until they can get the problem correct...I don't know. (Um...hello...Jaime where is your valuable insight to these problems?) (October 26, 1993, Time: 11:19:37, Ellen Lister, Grp 5).

Example of Delayed Dialogue:: 

Example of Delayed Dialogue: Joyce's new system offers a wide variety of assessment forms. These different forms complement the diverse learning and test taking abilities of her students. Joyce seems to cover the two goals of classroom assessment with her final exam--to increase learning and increase motivation. Students will increase their learning because they will not just remember information to re[g]urgitate on an exam, but instead they will store these items in their long-term memory and later may be able to make a general transfer. Joyce will increase student motivation because she has deviated from the normal assessment method expected by her students. Joyce's test will probably be both reliable and valid considering that she implemented three different forms of tests. Joyce's test also might reduce test anxiety. If her students know what to expect on the test (they even wrote the questions) they more than likely will be less anxious on exam day... (January 31, 1994, Time: 19:28, Sarah Fenway, Language Group.)


Larry Entertaining, Creative and controversial, Indirectly intimidating, One who set own agenda, Very articulate and witty.

Sample of Larry’s Comments....: 

Sample of Larry’s Comments.... 'Peace, dude, hop off the return key, save me some stress.' 'I am currently preparing my anti-groupwork support group.' 'I’ve noticed several people writing and saying that they would have done this or that brilliant or intuitive thing. I personally am brilliant or intuitive and I think other could use a little humility. This Karen’s made some mistakes, but we all make mistakes, and when (dare I say), we are in her shoes, we should expect to make some of the same ones that confound her.'

Conferencing on the Web(1996-2000): 

Conferencing on the Web (1996-2000)

Purpose of COW Project: 

Purpose of COW Project Students in field experiences write cases Teachers and students from around the world provide electronic mentoring Authentic cases and mentoring transform learning environment Helps preservice teachers understand the role of technology in education






Problems Solved By COW: 

Problems Solved By COW Student isolation in field experiences Lack of community/dialogue among teacher education participants Disconnectedness between class and field experience Limited reflective practices of novice teachers Need for appreciation of multiple perspectives

Quantitative Methods: 

Quantitative Methods Average results for prior to TITLE (TITLE): Participants per semester: 130 (andgt;300) Cases per semester: 230 (624) Cases per student: 1.75 (same 1.80) Average responses per case: 4.5 (3.9) Average words per case: 100-140 (198)

Frequent Case Topics: 

Frequent Case Topics



Peer Talk (Bonk, Malikowski, Supplee, andamp; Angeli, 1998)

Transcript Results: 

Transcript Results A. Peer Content Talk 31% Social Acknowledgments 60% Unsupported Claims and Opinions 7% Justified Claims 2% Dialogue Extension Q’s and Stmts B. Mentor Scaffolding 24% Feedback, Praise, and Social 24% General Advice and Suggestions 20% Scaffolding and Socratic Questioning 16% Providing Examples and Models 8% Low Level Questioning 8% Direct Instruction andamp; Explanations/Elab

Qualitative Themes(Note: 10 students interviewed): 

Qualitative Themes (Note: 10 students interviewed) COW was good because… it involved real-life scenarios it connected textbook concepts feedback from multiple sources was available COW wasn’t always a priority because... other assignments had earlier due dates it wasn’t always emphasized lengthy submission time = procrastination

Still More Qualitative Themes...: 

Still More Qualitative Themes... Mentor feedback was… appreciated andamp; motivating Mentor feedback could be better by… having more of it using it to prompt and push The international perspective was… intriguing and interesting way to see cultural diffs a way to see how technology can be used Students were attracted to cases that… were interesting, familiar, controversial

Overall Major Findings: 

Overall Major Findings COW enhanced student learning provided a link between classroom and field encouraged learning about technology COW extended student learning students got feedback from outside their immediate community students saw international perspective COW transformed student learning students took ownership for learning students co-constructed knowledge base

Study #4: COW, Spring 1998(Bonk, Malikowski, Supplee, & Dennen, 2000): 

Study #4: COW, Spring 1998 (Bonk, Malikowski, Supplee, andamp; Dennen, 2000) Two Month Conference (One Condition) 3 discussion areas (IU, Finland, and Cultural Immersions) Subjects = 110 students (80 US and 30 Finnish students) Mentors = 2 AIs, 1 supervisor, 4 coop tchrs, 3 conference moderators. Videoconferences + Web Conferences

Finnish Cases Were Longer and more Reflective and Often Co-Authored: 

Finnish Cases Were Longer and more Reflective and Often Co-Authored 1. Author: Maija Date: Mar. 4 5:00 AM 1998 Do not leap ahead, do not lag behind Marya Ford Washington has stated that 'I often find some children leaping and flying ahead and others dawdling and lagging behind. At times I am faced with the unhappy decisions whether to abandon the slower end or ignore the other. If I must face this decision regularly in a group of seven 'like ability' students, how often, I wonder, must regular classroom teachers be forced to 'lose' one end or the other.' (Gifted Child Today, November/December 1997) Is it possible that the pupils could progress with their own speed so that only the minimal level would be set by the teacher? Often, in school there are situations when a pupil has already done what is required, and s/he wants to go on but the teacher prevents it by saying 'Wait, until I teach it first! Otherwise you might learn it in a wrong way.' In small classes it is easier for the teacher to let the children progress at their own speed and s/he is able to guide them even though they would be at different stages….

Vertical Mentoring Examples: 

Vertical Mentoring Examples 9. Author: Jerry Cochey ( Mentor) Date: Mar. 11 1:46 PM 1998 To shift from teacher centered classrooms to child centered classrooms and learning takes time, patience and a takes a long time to have students change to being responsible for their own…Teachers need to continue to supervise/coordinate learning...

Horizontal Finnish Mentoring: 

Horizontal Finnish Mentoring 12. Leena Date: Mar. 30 11:52 AM 1998 This case is something I feel very close to. I have been trying struggle with finding ways to be a teacher in a new way, trying to think everything from the students' perspective, to challenge my own old traditions of teaching and try to seek ways which the I could find ways of studying things together with the students. What really puzzles me is that... - Leena

Justified Statement (Finnish): 

Justified Statement (Finnish) 3. Author: Kirsi Date: Mar. 6 8:11 AM 1998 Why not let the student study math further by himself and the teacher could help him whenever the teacher has time. ….. If I quote dear mr Vygotsky here again, the teacher should be sensitive to see where the child's proximate zone of development is and to help him 'over' it. The teacher's task is not to try to keep the child on the level he has reached but to help him learn more if he is interested…

Unjustified Statements (US): 

Unjustified Statements (US) 24. Author: Katherine Date: Apr. 27 3:12 AM 1998 I agree with you that technology is definitely taking a large part in the classroom and will more so in the future with all the technological advances that will be to come but I don't believe that it could actually take over the role of a teacher…but in my opinion will never take over the role of a teacher. 25. Author: Jason Date: Apr. 28 1:47 PM 1998 I feel technology will never over take the role of the teacher...I feel however, this is just help us teachers out and be just another way for us to explain new work to the children. No matter how advanced technology gets it will never … 26. Author: Daniel Date: Apr. 30 0:11 AM 1998 I believe that the role of the teacher is being changed by computers, but the computer will never totally replace the teacher... I believe that the computers will eventually make teaching easier for us and that most of the children's work will be done on computers. But I believe that…

Spring of ’97 Content Analysis of Online Discussion in Ed Psych Course(Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2001, Instructional Science): 

Spring of ’97 Content Analysis of Online Discussion in Ed Psych Course (Hara, Bonk, andamp; Angeli, 2001, Instructional Science) Social (in 26.7% of units coded) social cues decreased as semester progressed messages gradually became less formal andamp; more embedded Cognitive (in 81.7% of units) More inferences andamp; judgments than elem clarifications and in-depth clarifications Metacognitive (in 56% of units) More reflections on exper andamp; self-awareness Some planning, eval, andamp; regulation andamp; self q’ing


Purpose and Questions of this Study Inter patterns with starter-wrapper roles? What is role of instructor in weekly interactions? Degree of social, cog, metacog commenting? Can conferencing deepen class discussions?


Surface vs. Deep Posts: 

Surface vs. Deep Posts Surface Processing making judgments without justification, stating that one shares ideas or opinions already stated, repeating what has been said asking irrelevant questions i.e., fragmented, narrow, and somewhat trite. In-depth Processing linked facts and ideas, offered new elements of information, discussed advantages and disadvantages of a situation, made judgments that were supported by examples and/or justification. i.e., more integrated, weighty, and refreshing.


Week 1: 

Week 1 Starter Centered Interaction:

Week 4: 

Week 4 Scattered Interaction (no starter):

Conferencing Work(2001-2002): 

Conferencing Work (2001-2002)

Starter-Wrapper Discussions(Beatty & Bonk, 2001): 

Starter-Wrapper Discussions (Beatty andamp; Bonk, 2001) Student-centered discussion Multiple roles for students (30 undergrad preservice teachers) Starting a discussion Contributing Wrapping a discussion Instructor’s role Facilitate Model

Social Cues: 

Social Cues Post openings – 'Wow, all of this psychology stuff just blows right over my head … fancy mumbo-jumbo … eek!' Personal statements – 'I’m feeling great …' Apologies – 'Sorry everybody, I am the discussion starter and I didn’t realize it! Oops! Jokes, compliments, emoticons, verbal support

Referencing Peers: 

Referencing Peers 'Melinda mentions that it’s easier to …' 'I agree with George that incentives can definitely do …' '… in reply to Nancy’s comments about teacher’s jobs …'

Referencing Experts: 

Referencing Experts Formal citations 'Learners must individually discover and transform information if they are to make it their own (Slavin, 270)' Informal references '… the different teaching techniques as described in Slavin, but …'

Findings: Cognitive Depth: 

Findings: Cognitive Depth

The Pedagogical TICKIT: Teacher Institute for Curriculum Knowledge about the Integration of Technology: 

The Pedagogical TICKIT: Teacher Institute for Curriculum Knowledge about the Integration of Technology Curt Bonk, Lee Ehman, Emily Hixon, and Lisa Yamagata-Lynch Presented at AERA, 2001, in press, Technology and Teacher Education

Overview of TICKIT: 

Overview of TICKIT Year-long school-based program 25 teacher in 5 rural schools Thoughtful infusion of technology Builds teacher cadres in schools Two classroom technology projects taught Action research and reporting Asynchronous conferencing in Virtual U Critical friends Reading reactions Online debates

Findings: Overall Frequencies of Online Assisted Learning: 

Findings: Overall Frequencies of Online Assisted Learning Most frequent: Feedback andamp; Praise 28% Social Acknowledgement 25% Encouraging Articulation 13% Questioning 9% Modeling/Examples 7% Weaving/Summarizing 6% Direct Instruction 0%

Findings: Peer Social Discourse: 

Findings: Peer Social Discourse Focus: 50% on teaching and school experience Off Task: 7%; most in critical friend posts 50% more peer praise in critical friend posts Referred to own teaching 3 times andgt; than others Justification: 77% claims unsupported; 20% referenced classroom andamp; other experience Not Much Depth; 80% surface level

Findings: Summary: 

Findings: Summary Critical friend dialogue involved more peer support, help requests, social acknowledgement Reading reactions/debates more content focus Critical friend postings perceived more beneficial to classroom practice Reading reactions andamp; debates viewed as 'just another task'

Research Study: multicultural issues in online collaboration? (Kim & Bonk, 2002): 

Research Study: multicultural issues in online collaboration? (Kim andamp; Bonk, 2002) Are there cross-cultural differences in learner’s online collaborative behaviors among preservice teachers from 3 diff cultures? If cross-cultural differences are found, what factors seem to cause such differences? What are the implications of such cross-cultural differences for designing, developing, and delivering online learning?

Online Postings Summary (1): 

Online Postings Summary (1) Finland and US conferences

Online Collaboration Behaviors by Categories: 

Online Collaboration Behaviors by Categories

Differences in Feedback Seeking & Giving: 

Differences in Feedback Seeking andamp; Giving A U.S. case on disciplinary problems (FBS) 'One day I come into teach the class and one of the twenty students is very quiet. He seemed alright at the time of teaching, but towards the end he just starts crying for no reason. Then, I asked him if there was a problem at home. That is when he starts to really cry. … The questions that were raised in my head were: 1. How involved should I get?, 2. Should I call the family and tell them what happened?, 3. Should I tell the other teachers and see what we all can do?'

Differences in Social Interaction Behaviors: 

Differences in Social Interaction Behaviors Social Interactions Among Korean students - Well, like a cup of coffee, may this new thing be relaxing (I am praying now). It must be the beginning, so I am happy now. I wonder whether someone would reply to me. I am a little bit nervous ‘cause I am not so familiar with Web conferencing. - Sister Sunny, take care of yourself, and I hope your health will be good soon. I’m not accustomed to Web conference, either, but it is a good chance to participate. Please, cheer up! - Thank you for your interest in my health, but I’m all right now…

Findings from the Qualitative Analysis: 

Findings from the Qualitative Analysis U.S. students more action-oriented and pragmatic in seeking results or giving solutions. Finnish students were more group focused as well as reflective and theoretically driven. Korean students were more socially and contextually driven.

Last Study: The Armor Captains Career Course (AC3-DL)Problem-Solving Exercises in Military Training: Communication Patterns During Synchronous (2001-2002) Web-based Instruction Computers in Human Behavior, Special Issue on Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving; Orvis, Wisher, Bonk, & Olson, in press: 

Last Study: The Armor Captains Career Course (AC3-DL) Problem-Solving Exercises in Military Training: Communication Patterns During Synchronous (2001-2002) Web-based Instruction Computers in Human Behavior, Special Issue on Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving; Orvis, Wisher, Bonk, andamp; Olson, in press

Three Phases of AC3-DL: 

Three Phases of AC3-DL Asynchronous Phase: 240 hours of instruction or 1 year to complete; must score 70% or better on each gate exam Synchronous Phase: 60 hours of asynchronous and 120 hours of synchronous Residential Phase: 120 hours of training in 2 weeks at Fort Knox

Overall frequency of interactions across chat categories (6,601 chats). : 

Overall frequency of interactions across chat categories (6,601 chats).

Sample Social Interactions: 

Sample Social Interactions 'Good Morning' 'what up how’s the kids' 'Kids are great we made breakfast for Mom (wife)' 'Did you go out for a run last night?' 'tell her I said happy mothers day' '3 miles in 24 mins all hills' 'If God had meant for us to run, he wouldn’t have given us tanks'

Social, mechanics, and on-task behaviors in the chat interactions over time.: 

Social, mechanics, and on-task behaviors in the chat interactions over time.


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