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1852 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2018 76: 1852-1856 E-ISSN: 2278-4136 P-ISSN: 2349-8234 JPP 2018 76: 1852-1856 Received: 02-09-2018 Accepted: 04-10-2018 CH Ramulu Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal Telangana India P Raghu Rami Reddy Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal Telangana India Correspondence CH Ramulu Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal Telangana India Soil fertility status of regional agricultural research station Warangal Telangana CH Ramulu and P Raghu Rami Reddy Abstract This study was carried out to determine the soil fertility status and preparing the soil fertility maps of the Regional Agricultural Research Station RARS Warangal. The total extent of farm area is 62 hactares from which 64 soil samples were identified by GPS device and soil sampling was done to a depth of 0-20 cm by using soil sampling auger. The collected soil samples were analyzed to find out their Texture pH EC Organic carbon OC Available N P2O5 K2O Ca Mg S B Fe Zn Cu and Mn. The soil fertility status maps were prepared using the analyzed data. The observed data revealed that soil was grayish brown in colour and sub-angular blocky in structure. The sand silt and clay content were 35.72 ± 2.50 14.58 ± 0.61 and 49.69 ± 2.2 respectively and categorized as three different classes of texture. The soil was slightly alkaline in reaction pH 7.85 ± 0.07. The electrical conductivity Ec is 0.67 + 0.07 dSm -1 . The organic carbon percent OC was 0.70 + 0.04.The available nitrogen status209±11 kg ha - 1 was low whereas available phosphorus 49±2.2 kg P2O5 ha -1 was medium and available potassium 552±30 kg K2O ha -1 was high. The available zinc 1.24±0.23 ppm copper 1.87±0.31 ppm iron 24.42+4.25 and manganese 9.59 + 1.49 were sufficient. Keywords: Research farm Warangal soil testing and soil fertility maps 1. Introduction The sustainability of any system has become major concern now a days. The evaluation of soil fertility is perhaps the most basic decision making tool in order to impose appropriate nutrient management strategies Brady and Weil 2002 1 . There are various techniques for soil fertility evaluation among them soil testing is the most widely used in the world Havlin et al. 2010 2 . Soil testing assess the current fertility status and provides information regarding nutrient availability in soils which forms the basis for the fertilizer recommendations for maximizing crop yields and to maintain the adequate fertility in soils for longer period. The texture structure colour bulk density hydraulic conductivity etc. are important soil physical parameters. Similarly soil reaction pH and electrical conductivity EC are physico-chemical parameters and organic carbon percent OC available macro and micronutrients are important soil chemical parameters. The physical and chemical tests provide information about the capacity of soil to supply mineral nutrients Ganorkar and Chinchmalatpure 2013 3 . Spatial variation across a field become great challenge for assesses soil fertility of an area. Describing the spatial variability of soil fertility across a field has been difficult until new technologies such as Global Positioning Systems GPS and Geographic Information Systems GIS were introduced. GIS is a powerful set of tools for collecting storing retrieving transforming and displayingspatialdata Burrough Mc Donnell 1998 4 . Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal is an important wing among the research stations of PJTSAU in order to generate appropriate agriculture production technologies for central region of Telangana state. The research of different field crops rice cotton and pulses etc are being carried out since longer period in the farm. Studies related to the soil fertility status of Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal are scant. Therefore it is important to investigate the soil fertility status and it may provide valuable information relating crop research. Considering these facts the present study was initiated with the objective to assess the soil fertility status of Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1 Study area The study was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal Figure 1. The research farm is situated at the 18 0 01.077 N latitude 79 0 36.197 E longitude and an altitude of 259 m above mean sea level.

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1853 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Fig 1: Layout Map of Regional Agriculture Research Station RARS Warangal. 2.2 Soil sampling The surface soil samples 0-20 cm depth were collected from all blocks of Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal during May 2015. Altogether 64 soil samples were collected by using soil sampling auger and spade. The exact locations of the samples were recorded using a handheld GPS receiver. The random method based on the variability of the soil was used to collect soil samples. 2.3 Laboratory analysis The collected soil samples were brought to laboratory shade dried for two days removed stones pebbles and plant roots and arrived required sample size 500gm by quartering method after that sieved the samples with 2mm sieve for performing analysis at soil science laboratory Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal. The different soil parameters tested as well as methods that adapted to analysis is shown in the Table 1. Table 1: Methods adopted for the soil analysis S. No Soil Parameters Units Methods adopted 1 Physical characters Soil texture Hydrometer method Bouyoucos 1962 5 Soil colour Munshell-colour chart Soil structure Field-feel 2 Physico-chemical characters Soil pH Potentiometric 1:2 Jackson 1973 6 Electrical conductivity dSm -1 Potentiometric 1:2 Jackson 1973 6 3. Chemical characters Organic carbon Walkley and Black Walkley and Black 1934 7 Available nitrogen kg ha -1 Subbaiah and Asija 1956 8 Available P2O5 kg ha -1 Olsen’s method Olsen et al. 1954 9 Extractable K2O kg ha -1 Neutral Normal Ammonium AcetateJackson 1967 10 Available Zn ppm DTPA Lindsay and Norvell 1978 11 Available Cu ppm DTPA Lindsay and Norvell 1978 11 Available Fe ppm DTPA Lindsay and Norvell 1978 11 Available Mn ppm DTPA Lindsay and Norvell 1978 11 2.4 Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics mean range standard deviation standard error coefficient of variation of soil parameters were computed using the Minitab 17 package. Rating very low low medium high and very high of determined values were based on Soil Science Division Khumaltar. The coefficient of variation was ranked according to the procedure of Aweto 1982 12 where CV 25 low variation CV 25 ≤ 50 moderate variation CV 50 high variation. Similarly the nutrient index was also determined by the formula given by Ramamurthy and Bajaj 1969 13 . Nutrient index N.I. NL × 1 + NM × 2 + NH × 3 / NT Where NL NM and NH indicates number of samples falling in low medium and high classes of nutrient status respectively and NT means total number of samples analyzed for a given area. Similarly interpretation was done as value given by Ramamurthy shown on the Table 2. Table 2: Rating Chart of Nutrient index S. No. Nutrient Index Value 1 Low 1.67 2 Medium 1.67-2.33 3 High 2.33 3. Results and Discussion The soil fertility status in the study area with respect to texture structure colour pH EC organic carbon primary nutrients secondary nutrients and micronutrients were assessed and the results obtained are presented and discussed in the following headings. 3.1 Soil Texture Soil texture affects the soil sustainability. The sand silt and clay are the three components of soil texture. It affects absorption of nutrients microbial activities the infiltration and retention of water soil aeration tillage and irrigation practices Gupta 2004 14 . The percent sand of soil samples were ranged from13.33 to 71 with the mean value of 35.72 and that of percent silt were 7.00 to 29.64 with a mean of 14.58 while the clay percent ranged from19.72 to 75.92 with a mean of 49.69 Table 3. The coefficient of variation between the soil samples were 75.53 25.04 and 44.3 for sand silt and clay contents respectively. Table 3: Soil separates status of Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal. Descriptive Statistics Soil separates’ Sand Silt Clay Mean 35.72 14.58 49.69 Standard deviation 19.57 4.89 17.56 Standard error 2.50 0.61 2.20 Minimum 13.88 7.00 19.72 Maximum 71.00 29.64 75.92 CV 55.00 33.54 35.34 3.2 Soil Colour Soil colour reflects on the transformation and translocation n occurred in the soil due to chemical biological and physical attributes. It shows water drainage aeration and organic matter content in the soil. In the majority of the study area grayish brown 10YR 6/1 colour was observed.

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1854 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 3.3 Soil Structure Soil structure refers to the pattern of spatial arrangement of soil particles in a soil mass Brady Weil 2004 1 . In the majority of the area sub angular blocky structure was observed. 3.4 Soil pH Soil pH is important chemical parameter of soil that affects nutrient availability Brady and Weil 2004 1 . The pH of soil was varied from 6.15 to 8.92 with a mean value of 7.85 Table 4. This indicates neutral to strongly alkaline in reaction due to which the availability of various nutrients for plants rice wheat maize vegetables etc. may be reduced. Therefore periodically gypsum incorporation is imperative for reduction of soil pH. The soil pH showed low variability 7.26 among the soil samples. Table 4: Soil physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of soils of Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal Descriptive Statistics pH EcdS/m OC Available Nkg/ha Available P2O5kg/ha AvailableK2O kg/ha Mean 7.85 0.67 0.70 209 49 552 Standard deviation 0.57 0.55 0.31 88 18 239 Standard error 0.07 0.07 0.04 11 2.2 30 Minimum 6.15 0.07 0.25 75 21 165 Maximum 8.92 2.50 1.85 352 113 992 CV 7.26 82 44 42 36 43 3.5 Soil EC Soil electrical conductivity varied from 0.07 to 2.50 dS/m with mean value of 0.67 dS/m which means soils are non- saline alkali Table-4. The soil Ec showed high variability among the soil samples 82. 3.6 Organic Carbon Organic carbon is important source of plant essential nutrients after their decomposition by microorganisms. It supplies plant nutrients improve the soil structure water infiltration and retention feeds soil micro-flora and fauna and the retention and cycling of applied fertilizer Johnston 2007 15 . The organic carbon content was varied from 0.25 to 1.85 with a mean value of 0.70 Table 4. It indicates that the organic carbon content was low to high and variability is high among the soil samples 44. Therefore incorporation of organic carbon adding materials is imperative for organic carbon improvement in soils. 3.7 Available Nitrogen Nitrogen is taken up by plants in greatest quantity next to carbon oxygen and hydrogen but in the tropics for crop production it is one of the most deficient elements Mesfin 1998 16 . The available nitrogen content was ranged from 75 to 352 kg/ha with a mean value of 209 kg/ha Table 4. This indicates low to medium content of available nitrogen. The nitrogen content is not satisfactory. Therefore regularly nitrogen adding organic and inorganic materials should be incorporated to make nitrogen balanced in soils. High variability 42 in available nitrogen was observed among the sampled soils Fig-2. 3.8 Available phosphorus Phosphorus is the master key to agriculture. The growth of both cultivated and uncultivated plants is limited by availability of P in the soils Foth and Ellis 1997 17 . The available phosphorus P 2 O 5 was ranged from 21 to 113 kg/ha with a mean value of 49 kg/ha Table 4. This showed medium to high status of available phosphorus. Available phosphorus showed high variability 36 among the tested soil samples Fig-2. 3.9 Available potassium Next to N and P Potassium K is the third most important essential element that limit plant productivity. The available potassium K 2 O content was ranged from 165 to 992 kg/ha with a mean value of 552 kg/ha. This suggests high status of extractable potassium. High variability 70.01 in extractable potassium was determined among the soil samples Fig-2. Fig 2: Major nutrients N P K map of RARS Warangal 3.9.1 Available calcium magnesium and sulphur Calcium is a secondary nutrient important for cell division in plants. The available calcium content was ranged from 5.4 to 20.4 m.e/100g soil with a mean value of 12.56 m.e/100g soil. The available magnesium content ranged from 5.0 to 15.7 m.e/100g with mean value of 8.25 m.e/100g soil. The available sulphur content ranged from 8.25to 29 ppm with mean value of 16.52 ppm. Overall the calcium magnesium and sulphur availability in the soil is sufficient for crop growth. 3.9.2 Available zinc Zinc is essential for several biochemical processes in plants such as cytochrome and nucleotide synthesis auxin metabolism chlorophyll production enzyme activation and the maintenance of membrane integrity Havlin et al. 2010 2 . The available zinc content was ranged from 0.14 to 2.86 mg/kg soil with a mean value of 1.24 mg/kg soil Table 5. This indicates deficient to sufficient of available zinc. There may have high possibility of khaira disease in rice if it is deficient in rice grown soils etc. Therefore different organic and inorganic sources of zinc should be applied in the field regularly to reduce zinc stress in plants. The available zinc showed high variability 73 among the soil samples Fig-3.

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1855 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 3.9.3 Available copper Copper is also important micronutrient for plants and required for lignin synthesis and acts as a constituent of ascorbic acid oxidase phenolase and plastocyanin Havlin et al. 2010 2 . The available copper content varied from 0.54 to 4.28 mg kg -1 soil with the mean value of 1.87 mg kg -1 soil Table 5. This indicates sufficient status of available copper is there in soil. High variability 65 in available copper was recorded among the soil samples Fig-3. 3.9.4 Available iron Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all living organisms because of it plays critical role in metabolic processes such as DNA synthesis respiration and photosynthesis Rout Sahoo 2015 18 . The available iron content ranged from 4.29 to 49.72 mg kg -1 soil with a mean value of 24.42 mg kg -1 soil Table 5. In overall available iron status was low to high in the soils of RARS Warangal. There may have high possibility for stress of iron toxicity as well deficiency of antagonistic elements in plants. Therefore nutrients like potassium phosphorus etc. should be applied in adequate amount for reducing iron toxicity stress in plants. Available iron showed high variability 71 among the soil samples Fig-3. 3.9.5 Available Manganese Manganese plays an important role in oxidation and reduction processes in plants Mousavi et al. 2011 19 . The available manganese content ranged from 1.56 to 81.48 mg kg -1 soil with the mean value of 9.59 mg kg -1 soil Table 5. This indicates high status of available manganese. The available manganese showed high variability 62 among the studied soil samples Fig-3. Table 5: Available micronutrients status of soils of Regional Agricultural Research Station Warangal Descriptive Statistics Available Zn mg kg -1 soil Available Cu mg kg -1 soil Available Fe mg kg -1 soil Available Mn mg kg -1 soil Mean 1.24 1.87 24.42 9.59 Standard deviation 0.9 1.22 17.00 5.96 Standard error 0.23 0.31 4.25 1.49 Minimum 0.14 0.54 4.29 1.56 Maximum 2.86 4.28 49.72 81.48 CV 73 65 71 62 3.9.6 Available boron Boron is required by plants for their cell wall structural integrity Havlin et al. 2010 2 . The available boron content ranged from 0.15 to 2.61 mg kg -1 soil with a mean value of 0.56 mg kg -1 soil. This indicates low content of available boron. Therefore regularly boron adding organic and inorganic materials should be incorporate to maintain boron adequate in soils. High variability 91.9 in available boron was observed among the soil samples. Fig 3: Micronutrients Zn Cu Fe Mn map of RARS Warangal Table 6: Nutrient indices of studied parameters of Regional Agricultural Research Station RARS Warangal S. No Parameters Number of samples Nutrient index value Remarks Low Medium High 1 Organic Carbon 18 26 19 2.0 High 2 Available Nitrogen 42 21 0 1.33 Low 3 Available phosphorus 0 44 19 2.30 High 4 Available potassium 0 13 50 2.79 High 5 Available Zn 49 11 3 1.26 Low 6 Available Cu 25 23 15 1.84 High 7 Available Fe 30 20 13 1.73 High 8 Available Mn 22 28 13 1.86 High

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1856 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 4. Conclusion Overall the colour of soil was grayish brown and structure was sub-angular blocky. Soils were slightly acidic to strongly alkaline in reaction non-saline to saline in nature and it is advisable to apply gypsum periodically for its amelioration. Overall the calcium magnesium and sulphur availability in the soils is sufficient for crop growth. The available nitrogen and zinc status were low. The organic carbon available phosphorus potassium copper iron and manganese were higher. The crops rice cotton and other crops etc. may suffer from deficiency of low and toxicity of very high plant available nutrients. Thus proper nutrient management strategy should be adopted especially for these nutrients. Considering the status of soil organic carbon and low available nitrogen the practices like manure or compost incorporation crop residue retention green manuring etc. can be suggested for its improvement. From this study it can be concluded that for enhancing the efficacy of the agricultural research rice cotton and pulses etc. the future research strategy should be based on the soil fertility status of the farm. 5. References 1. Brady NC Weil RR. The nature and properties of soils 13th edition. Pearson Education New Jersey 2002. 2. Havlin HL Beaton JD Tisdale SL Nelson WL. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers- an introduction to nutrient management 7th edition. PHI Learning Private Limited New Delhi 2010. 3. Ganorkar RP Chinchmalatpure PG. Physicochemical assessment of soil in Rajura Bazar in Amravati district of Maharastra India. International Journal of Chemical Environmental and Pharmaceutical Research 2013 423:46-49. 4. Burrough PA McDonnell RA. Principle of geographic information systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 5. Bouyoucos G.J.1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy. J. 1998 54:464. 6. Jackson ML. Soil Chemical Analysis: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi 1973. 7. Walkley AJ Black IA. Estimation of soil organic carbon by the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science. 1934 37:29-38. 8. Subbiah BV Asija GL. A rapid procedure for estimation of available nitrogen in soil. Current Science. 1956 25:259-260. 9. Olsen SR Cole CV Watnabe FS Dean LA. Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extracting with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circular No.989 United state department of agriculture Washington DC 1954. 10. Jackson ML. Soil Chemical Analysis: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi 1967. 11. Lindsay WL Norvel WA. Development of a DTPA test for zinc iron manganese and copper. Soil Science Society American Journal. 1978 42:421-428. 12. Aweto AO. Variability of upper slope soils developed under sandstones in South western Nigeria. Geographic Journal. 1982 25:27-37. 13. Ramamurthy B Bajaj JC. Available nitrogen phosphorus and potassium status of Indian soils. Fertilizer News. 1969 14:25-36. 14. Gupta PK. Soil plant water and fertilizer analysis. Shyam Printing Press Agrobios India 2004 38. 15. Johnston AE. Soil organic matter effects on soil and crop. Soil use and management. 2007 23:97-105. 16. Mesfin A. Nature and management of Ethiopian soils. Ethiopia: Alemaya University of Agriculture 1998 272. 17. Foth HD Ellis BG. Soil fertility 2nd edition. LLC. USA: Lewis CRC Press 1997 290. 18. Rout GR Sahoo S. Role of iron in plant growth and metabolism. Review of Agriculture Science. 2015 3:1- 24. 19. Mousavi SR Shahsavari M Rezaei M. A general overview of manganese Mn importance for crops production. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2011 59:1799-1803.

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