Chapter Six Fat Vitamins

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Chapter Six- Part 2 : 

Chapter Six- Part 2 The Fat Soluble Vitamins NUT SCI 142 © Spring 2005 Karen Lacey, MS, RD, CD

Categories : 

Categories WATER SOLUBLE (9) Thiamin (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Folate (folic acid) Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) FAT SOLUBLE (4) Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K

ANTIOXIDANTS (Vit C, E, beta-carotene): 

ANTIOXIDANTS (Vit C, E, beta-carotene) Free radicals (unstable oxygen compounds) Smoking Sunlight Chemical reactions in body Environmental pollution Cause damage Enzymes Cell membrane DNA Oxidized LDL-cholesterol Antioxidants Donate O2 to make stable

8. Vitamin A - Roles: 

8. Vitamin A - Roles VISION Light is transformed into nerve impulses so brain can interpret Transformers are pigment molecules in retina Retinal is part of the pigment Retinal is formed from Vitamin A CELL DIFFERENTIATION Skin Epithelial cells (linings of intestine) IMMUNITY Protective effect ANTIOXIDANT Beta-carotene

Vitamin A (cont) : 

Vitamin A (cont) FORMS IN FOOD Pre-formed Vit A Active form Animal foods (liver, fortified milk, chesses, egg yolk) Beta-carotene Precursor Plant foods (carotenoids) RDA 800 to 1000 RE RE = Retinal Equivelant How much retinal the body can make from the two forms Carotene (orange foods) Retinol (yellow foods)

Vitamin A – Problems : 

Vitamin A – Problems DEFICIENCY Night blindness Blindness Infectious diseases (especially measles) TOXICITY Joint pain Dry skin Fatigue HA, weakness Nausea Supplements of pre-formed active Vit A

9. Vitamin D : 

9. Vitamin D ROLES Bone growth Helps increase blood levels of calcium Increase absorption from gut Decrease loss from kidney Move calcium from bones Acts like hormone ACTIVE Liver – makes one form Kidney – makes active form DRI 5- 10 ug Based on growth and development (more for children) 10 ug for adults

Vitamin D (cont): 

Vitamin D (cont) DEFICIENCY Rickets Children Bowed legs Osteomalacia Adults Softening of bones TOXICITY High blood levels of calcium Kidney stones

Vitamin D – sources : 

Vitamin D – sources Sunlight – begins the conversion of an inactive form to active form (5-15 minutes) Foods – Animal Same as preformed Vitamin A Eggs Fortified milk Margarine Shrimp

10. Vitamin E : 

10. Vitamin E ROLE Antioxident DRI 15 mg – adults One of most popular supplements FOODS Vegetable oils Nuts and seeds Wheat germ Green leafy vegetables Mayonnaise

Vitamin E (cont): 

Vitamin E (cont) DEFICIENCY Muscle wasting Red blood cell breakage Anemia TOXICITY > 1000 mg Increase bleeding

11. Vitamin K: 

11. Vitamin K ROLE Blood clotting Used in synthesis of 4 – 13 proteins used to make blood clot Works with Vit D to make bone protein DRI 60-80 ug DEFICIENCY Bleeding Decreased bone calcium

Vitamin K – sources : 

Vitamin K – sources Intestine – bacteria synthesize Foods Liver Green leafy & cabbage type vegetables Garbanzo beans Eggs Milk

Vitamin Preservation: 

Vitamin Preservation Shop frequently for fruits and vegetables Store foods in refrigerator (cold preserves nutrients) Cut and peel just before serve or eat Use liquid from cooked and canned vegetables Steam or microwave

Vitamin/Mineral Supplements – Who?: 

Vitamin/Mineral Supplements – Who? Very low calorie diets Strict vegetarians Pregnant and breastfeeding Childbearing age (folate) Elderly Heart disease or at risk AND do not consume adequate antioxidents and B vitamins

Vitamin/Mineral Supplements – What?: 

Vitamin/Mineral Supplements – What? Price not indication of quality Label for USP (US Pharmacopeia) Contains both vitamins and minerals with 100-150 X RDA Be wary of claims “natural”, contain herbs, Child proof caps

Phytochemicals : 

Phytochemicals Physiological active compounds found in plants that are not nutrients but appear to help promote health and reduce risk for cancer, heart disease and other conditions Brilliant color


Phytochemicals Antioxidents Decrease blood pressure Decrease blood cholesterol Prevent cataracts Prevent osteoporosis Combine benefits with vitamins, minerals, fiber, low-fat, low calories


Phytochemicals Allyl sulfides onions Carotenoids Beta-caratene Lutein & zeaxanthin Lycopene Indoles Cruciferous vegetables Flavonoids & phenols Fruits Green tea Chocolate Phytoestrogens Isoflavones – soy & legumes Lignan –flaxseed Saponins Potatoes



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