DP Chapter 5 a First Two Years Biosocial Brain Development NARRATED

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Part II:

Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A . adapted by Dr. Carola Pförtner 1 Part II The First Two Years: Infant and Toddlers Chapter Five A Body Changes Brain Development Senses and Motor Skills Public Health Measures

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Link to Full Article 2

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3 Biosocial Development Guidelines for Infants Guideline 1. Infants need daily physically activities with caregivers to explore their environment. Guideline 2. Infants need safe settings that support physical activity. Do not restrict movement for long periods of time. Guideline 3. Infants' physical activity should encourage movement skills. Guideline 4. Infants should have an environment that meets or exceeds recommended safety standards for performing large muscle activities. Guideline 5. Individuals responsible for the well-being of infants should be aware of the importance of physical activity and facilitate the child's movement skills. Click above picture to go to Livestrong website with many activity suggestions

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4 Biosocial Development Guidelines for Toddlers and Preschoolers Guideline 1. Toddlers should have at least 30 minutes daily of structured physical activity Guideline 2. Toddlers should engage in at least 60 minutes and up to several hours per day of daily, unstructured physical activity. They should not be sedentary for more than 60 minutes at a time except when sleeping. Guideline 3. Toddlers should develop movement skills that are building blocks for more complex movement tasks. Guideline 4. Toddlers should have indoor and outdoor areas that meet or exceed recommended safety standards for performing large muscle activities. Guideline 5. Individuals responsible for the well-being of toddlers and preschoolers should be aware of the importance of physical activity and facilitate the child's movement skills. Livestrong page for toddler activities click here

Body Changes:

5 In infancy Growth is fast Neglect can have severe consequences Gains should be monitored Health check-up should include Height, weight and head circumference Body Changes

Body Size:

6 Body Size Rapid growth Infants typically double their birth weight by the 4th month and Triple by the 1st birthday Physical growth slows in the 2nd year By 24 months Weight is about 30 lbs, height about 32”-36” Note: these numbers are “norms”

Body Size – Comparing Children:

7 Body Size – Comparing Children “NORMS” an average or standard for a particular population “Particular Population” a representative sample of North American infants “Percentiles” a number that is midway between 0 and 100, with ½ the children above it and ½ below it

Body Size:

8 Body Size Weight increase in the early months: is fat , providing insulation for warmth and nourishment Nourishment keeps the brain growing, if teething or illness interfere with eating When nutrition is temporarily inadequate, the body stops growing but not the brain this is known as a phenomenon called “head-sparing”

Sleep:

9 Sleep Infants sleep about 17 + hours/day Regular and ample sleep correlates with normal brain maturation learning, emotional regulation, and psychological adjustment in school and within the family Newborns dream a lot, i.e. have a high proportion of “REM sleep” REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep is a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves

Sleep Patterns:

10 Sleep Patterns Sleep patterns can be… Affected by birth order First born typically receive more attention Diet Parents might respond to predawn cries with food, and/or play (babies learn to wake up night after night) Child-rearing practices “Where should infants sleep?” Co-sleeping or bed-sharing Brain maturation Clickable link to above video if your flash player does not work.

Brain Development:

11 Brain Development the newborn’s skull is disproportionately large large enough to hold the brain, which at birth is 25% of the adult brain the neonate’s body is typically 5% of the adult weight by age 2 the brain is almost 75% of the adult brain weight the child’s total body weight is only about 20% of its adult weight

Connection in the Brain:

12 Connection in the Brain Head circumference provides a rough idea of how the brain is growing, and that is why medical checkups include measurement of the skull. Head typically increases about 35% within the 1st year Link to interactive Brain Map

Basic Brain Structures:

13 Basic Brain Structures The brain’s communication system begins with nerve cells, called neurons. Neurons are one of the billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially the brain. Infants have billions of neurons Located in the brain or in the brain stem the region that controls automatic responses, I.e., heartbeat, breathing, temperature, and arousal 70-80% of the neurons are in the cortex

Basic Brain Structures:

14 Basic Brain Structures The cortex is crucial for humans… 80% of the human brain materials in the cortex most thinking, feeling, and sensing take place in the cortex, although other parts of the brain join in. In other mammals the cortex is proportionally smaller, and non-mammals have no cortex

Basic Brain Structures Thickening and Pruning :

15 Basic Brain Structures Thickening and Pruning Transient Exuberance and Pruning The fivefold increase in dendrites in the cortex occurs in the 24 months after birth, with about 100 trillion synapses being present at age 2 The expanded growth is followed by pruning in which unused neurons and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die. This makes the brain more efficient Synapses, dendrites, and even neurons continue to form and die throughout life , though more rapidly in infancy than at any other time

Watch a few minutes of The Secret Life of the Bain – the entire series available online:

Watch a few minutes of The Secret Life of the Bain – the entire series available online 16 Clickable link to above video if your flash player does not work.

Nurturing Grows Brains!!!!:

17 Nurturing Grows Brains!!!! Experience Shapes the Brain brain structure and growth depends on genes and experiences Nurturing is a major factor in brain growth some dendrites wither away because they are underused; no experiences have caused them to send a message to the axons of other neurons.

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20 Neglect fails to “grow” the Brain

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21 Trauma, Stress and Brain Development The brain produces cortisol and other hormones in response to stress In young children this acid bath over stimulates areas of the brain related to fight or flight This results in overactive lower brain function and can lead to irritability, hyper vigilance, dissociation 911 call by child witnessing parental fight Notice the amount of stress on the child Not for the faint hearted: Stress noticeable in the 911 call of a child witnessing a parental fight: Clickable link to above video if your flash player does not work.

Basic Brain Development :

22 Basic Brain Development Necessary and Possible Experiences Scientist William Greenough identified two experience-related aspects of brain development The development of experience-expectant brain functions that require certain basic common experiences, which an infant can be expected to have in order to develop normally Have to happen during sensitive periods – for example coordinated use of the two eyes Basic, common experiences must happen for normal brain maturation to occur, and they almost always do happen The development of experience-dependent brain functions that depend on variable experience and that therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant A child with musical parents may be more exposed to music and learn to play an instrument

Brain Development: Implications for Cargivers:

23 Brain Development: Implications for Cargivers the human brain is designed to grow and adapt some plasticity is retained throughout life the brain protects itself from overstimulation ex., over stimulated babies cry or sleep babies adjust to under stimulation by developing new connections lifelong Clickable link to above video if your flash player does not work.

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