DP chapter 2 c Behaviorism.Piaget.Humanistic. Vygotsky 2012 narrated

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Chapter 2 c:

Chapter 2 c Psychology Making the Invisible Visible Pavlov / Skinner Behaviorism Piaget (Cognitive) Humanistic Vygotsky (Socio-cultural) 1

Behaviorism Theory :

2 Behaviorism Theory Learning Theories …all behavior is learned step by step Conditioning responses become linked to particular stimuli Classical conditioning Two experiences are connected: a stimulus and a response Operant conditioning learning process: a particular action is followed by an operator: Reinforcement: behavior is followed by something that increases behavior Punishment: behavior is followed by something that decreases behavior Extinction: behavior is not followed by anything, it disappears

PowerPoint Presentation:

Pavlov Classical Conditioning A previously neutral stimulus (bell rings, nothing happens) and A p reviously unconditioned stimulus (drools naturally around food) get paired (food and bell presented together) To cause a conditioned response (drooling because of bell) A bedtime routine used with sleepiness = Sleepiness induced by the bedtime routine.

Behaviorism:

Behaviorism B. F. Skinner Environmental Consequences Shape Behavior “All we need to know in order to describe and explain behavior is this: actions followed by good outcomes are likely to recur , and actions followed by bad outcomes are less likely to recur.” (Skinner, 1953)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Watch BF Skinner himself explain his conditioning of a pigeon. Operant Conditioning : Operant conditioning: It involves the use of either rewards or punishments in order to increase or decrease the frequency of a behavior.

Negative Reinforcement:

Negative Reinforcement The Mouse is sprayed each time he goes to the dark ground ( a natural inclination to hide) -and the water stops when he goes to the white ground. See how quickly he learns to run on white .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Behavior Modification and Children Baby Tender

Newer Behaviorism Theory – Albert Bandura :

8 Newer Behaviorism Theory – Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior Modeling The central process of social learning a person observes the actions of others and then copies them

Cognitive Theory Jean Pierre PIAGET :

9 Cognitive Theory Jean Pierre PIAGET The third grand theory emphasized the structure and development of thought processes Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational

Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), Carl Rogers (1902-1987) :

Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Stresses the potential of humans for good All people have the same basic needs Emphasize what people have in common

Sociocultural Theory:

11 Sociocultural Theory Lev Vygotsky Development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces Do you think these conditions reported by UNICEF influence development?

Sociocultural Theory:

12 Sociocultural Theory Zone of proximal development skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help Task Too difficult Level of new Task to learn Present Level of Performance Task Too easy Difficulty Level of Task Stress Anxiety Distraction Illness/Pain/Hunger Match w. learning style Support High Interest Relevance Emotionally charged

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