Jay Patterson 9 15 05

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Slide1: 

LONE STAR’S UNIQUE APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES

LONE STAR’S GREENCASTLE PLANT: 

LONE STAR’S GREENCASTLE PLANT Semi-Dry Kiln Conversion Project 750,000 STPY TO 1,400,000 STPY

KILN FEED ANALYSIS GREENCASTLE, INDIANA PLANT: 

KILN FEED ANALYSIS GREENCASTLE, INDIANA PLANT Large Potential for High SO2, THC and CO Emissions

CONFIRMED BY LABORATORY OFF-GAS ANALYSIS OF KILN FEED: 

CONFIRMED BY LABORATORY OFF-GAS ANALYSIS OF KILN FEED

TRADITIONAL WET-TO-DRY CONVERSION OPTION: 

TRADITIONAL WET-TO-DRY CONVERSION OPTION For a Fully - Dry Conversion Expect: 4.1 lb/ST CO 10.0 lb/ST SO2

GASEOUS EMISSIONS PROJECTIONS: 

GASEOUS EMISSIONS PROJECTIONS *NOTE: Gaseous emission estimates for dry and semi-dry lines based on 0.55% organic carbon in raw mix * *NOTE: Gaseous emission estimates for dry and semi-dry lines based on 0.24% pyritic sulfur in raw mix

PLANT EXPANSION OPTIONS: : 

PLANT EXPANSION OPTIONS: TRADITIONAL WET-TO-DRY CONVERSION ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY SEMI-DRY CONVERSION 5-STAGE PREHEATER MODERN LOW NOx CALCINER COMPLETELY NEW “DRY” RAW MEAL PREPARATION SYSTEM WITH BLENDING SILO REQUIRES WET SCRUBBER AND R-T-O FOR SO2/CO/THC EMISSIONS DUE TO “SLOW” PREHEAT IN TRADITONAL CYCLONE PREHEATER BEFORE CALCINER ENTRY 1-STAGE PREHEATER MODERN LOW NOx CALCINER RE-USE EXISTING ESP AND SLURRY BASINS FLASH DRY SLURRY IN A DRYER-CRUSHER FEED DRIED SLURRY DIRECTLY TO CALCINER WITHOUT PREHEAT

WHAT IS A SEMI-DRY PROCESS?: 

WHAT IS A SEMI-DRY PROCESS?

ALTERNATIVE SEMI-DRY SYSTEM USING: LOW NOX CALCINER, DRYER-CRUSHER, AND ADDITIONAL DE-DUSTING CYLCONES: 

ALTERNATIVE SEMI-DRY SYSTEM USING: LOW NOX CALCINER, DRYER-CRUSHER, AND ADDITIONAL DE-DUSTING CYLCONES For a Semi-Dry Conversion Expect: Much Lower NOx, SO2, PM, THC, DIOXIN, HCL

REASONS FOR LOWER EMISSIONS: 

REASONS FOR LOWER EMISSIONS FLASH DRY AT TEMPERATURES BELOW VOLATILIZATION (190°C) FLASH CALCINE AND BURN COMBUSTIBLES IN LOW NOX CALCINER WITH LONG RETENTION TIME (900°C) FLASH VOLATILIZE PYRITE IN CALCINER WITHOUT PREHEAT AND SCRUB THE VOLATILIZED SO2 WITH FREE LIME. ADDITIONAL PM REDUCTION WITH DE-DUSTING CYCLONES SEMI-DRY SYSTEM

GREENCASTLE PROJECT Previous Wet Process: 

GREENCASTLE PROJECT Previous Wet Process Long Wet Kiln 17’ x 580’ 6-Piers 35:1 Length-to-Diameter Ratio 1000 Hp Dual Drive with Max Speed 1.2 rpm

GREENCASTLE PROJECT New Semi-Dry Process Re-Use Existing Precipitator and Slurry Basins: 

GREENCASTLE PROJECT New Semi-Dry Process Re-Use Existing Precipitator and Slurry Basins Semi-Dry Kiln 17’ x 255’ 3-Piers 16:1 Length-to-Diameter Ratio 900 Hp Single Drive with Max Speed 3.8 rpm

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL NOX EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS: 

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL NOX EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS 2.35 lb/st 2.08 lb/st 9.25 lb/st

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL CO EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS: 

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL CO EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS 0.35 lb/st 5.98 lb/st

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL SOX EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS: 

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL SOX EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS 0.01 lb/st 0.24 lb/st 7.64 lb/st

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL THC EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS: 

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL THC EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS 5 ppm 10 ppm

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL DIOXIN EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS: 

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL DIOXIN EMISSIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WET PROCESS and NEW SEMI-DRY PROCESS 0.05 g/dscm 0.0015 g/dscm

COMPARISON OF HCl EMISSIONS: 

COMPARISON OF HCl EMISSIONS Dramatic Improvement in HCl Emissions Due To Scrubbing Effect of Dryer-Crusher at Low Temperatures Compared to Wet Kiln Process Mass % of HCl Emitted from Stack as a Function of Total HCl Input 0.4252% 3.3494%

COMPARISON OF PM EMISSIONS: 

COMPARISON OF PM EMISSIONS Dramatic Improvement in PM Emissions Due To De-Dusting Cyclones prior to ESP Compared to Wet Kiln Process 35.1 lb/hr 20.7 lb/hr

LONE STAR’S UNIQUE APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES: 

PROVES TO BE THE RIGHT ONE LONE STAR’S UNIQUE APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES

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